Transcriptional is: Copying the information from the rna to the dna. Copying the information from the rna to the rna. Copying the information from the dna to the rna. Copying the information from the dna to the dna. Copying the information from the rna to a polypeptide. The reparation of the dna is a process of: Synthesis of proteins, transfer of the information from the dna to the rna. Changes of the pro-mrna, regeneration of a native structure of the dna. Duplication of the dna, what molecule is activates repressor?
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Presence of write an m-rna, presence of a t-rna, what is containing the information about synthesis of one polypeptide? Molecule of the dna. Gene nucleotide, codon, triplet of nucleotides, intrones in a eukaryotic gene are sequences of nucleotides that: Contain the information. Free of the information, initiators of a transcription, terminators of a transcription. Regulators of a transcriptional, what is the function of promoter in a eukaryotic gene? Contains the information on amino acids in a polypeptide. Monitors a level of an expression. A place of linkage with the rna - polymerase. A place of a stopping of a transcriptional. Monitors selectivity of an expression of genes.
19, translation-Initiation The large ribosomal subunit margaret attaches to the small subunit such that the first codon is aligned at the p binding site. 20, translation-Initiation A trna carrying the amino acid methionine attaches to the start codon (AUG) on the messenger rna. The aug codon codes for methionine,. E, every protein initially starts with this amino acid The trna that carries methionine enters the p site 21, translation-Initiation 22, translation-Elongation The next trna carrying the required amino acid enters the a site The trna and its amino acid attaches to the a binding. Amino end of polypeptide mrna 23, translation-Elongation The methionine amino acid at the p site is bonded to the amino acid at the a site There is a peptide bond formation between the two amino acids Peptide bond formation 24, translation- Elongation The trna. Ribosome ready for next aminoacyl trna 26 Translation- Elongation A new trna attached to an amino acid enters the vacant A site on the ribosome and the process repeats again Amino end of polypeptide mrna 28 Translation-Termination The ribosome will eventually reach a stop codon. Conditions that are necessary for synthesis of protein, all is correct, except for: Presence of amino acids, presence of lysosomes, presence of ribosomes.
Structure of rna e site (Exit site) P site (Peptidyl trna binding site) A site (Aminoacyl trna binding site) mrna binding site Small subunit Large subunit Ribosomal subunits are a combination of ribosomal rna (rRNA) and protein 8, translation-Initiation The ribosomes move along the mrna. Thus 3 different amino acid sequences can be obtained from a single mrna 11, the role of Transfer rna (tRNA) The ribosome alone cannot synthesize the polypeptide chain The correct amino acids must be delivered to the ribosome binding site The molecule thesis that delivers the. This hypothesis accounts for the number of tRNAs that are observed It also accounts for the degeneracy that is observed in the genetic Code. The degenerate base is that in the wobble position. 16, wobble Theory Crick recognized that the following base- pair schemes were possible: 5' anticodon base3' codon base au cg gc or u ua or g ia or c or. Aminoacyl-trna trna molecule with its corresponding amino acid attached to its acceptor site at the 3 ' end Acceptor site of amino acid 18, translation-Initiation The mrna joins to the small ribosomal unit at the 5' untranslated region. This binds to a special binding site on the small ribosomal subunit.
A patient has decreased concentration of magnesium ions that are required for ribosomes connection to granular endoplasmic reticulum. This condition is known to disrupt the process of protein biosynthesis. Disruption occurs at the following state: Translation* Processing Replication Amino acid activation Transcription. A 65-year-old man suffering from gout complains of pain in his kidneys. Ultrasonic examination revealed kidney stones. A certain substance in increased concentration can cause kidney stones formation. Name this substance: Uric acid* Urea cholesterol Cystine bilirubin Date: ; view: 425. Presentation on theme: "Protein Synthesis Translation. Protein Synthesis."— Presentation transcript: 1, protein Synthesis Translation 2, protein Synthesis 3, translation Translation 4, translation From dna blueprint Protein Once mrna enters the cytoplasm, it is ready to be translated Translation is made up three stages 5, translation- Initiation Initiation occurs when a ribosome.
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A 46-year-old female patient consulted a doctor about pain in small joints of health the upper and lower limbs. The joints are enlarged and shaped their like thickened nodes. Serum test revealed an increase in urate concentration. This might be caused by a disorder in metabolism of: Pyrimidines Carbohydrates Lipids *Purines Amino acids. A patient with hereditary hyperammonemia due to a disorder of Ornithine cycle has developed secondary orotaciduria.
The increased synthesis of orotic acid is caused by an increase in the following metabolite of Ornithine cycle: *Carbamoyl phosphate citrulline Argininosuccinate Urea ornithine. In cancer patients who have been continuously receiving methotrexate, the target cells of tumor with a time became insensitive to this drug. In this case, gene amplification of the following enzyme is observed: *Dihydrofolate reductase Thioredoxin reductase deaminase Alat thiaminase. During cell division, dna replication occurs by a signal from the cytoplasm, and a certain pertion of the dna helix unwinds and splits into two individual strains. What enzyme facilitates this process? Restrictase dna polymerase rna polymerase ligase *Helicase.
Transcription* oncological patient was administered methotrexate. With the lapse of time the target cells of the tumour lost sensitivity to the preparation. We can observe changes in the gene expression of the following enzyme:. Pterin derivatives (aminopterin and methotrexate) are the inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase so that they inhibit the regeneration of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolate. These drugs inhibit the intermolecular transfer of monocarbon groups, thus suppressing the synthesis of following polymer: Glycosaminoglycans Homopolysaccharides dna * Protein Gangliosides.
At the stage of translation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the ribosome moves along the mRNA. Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds in a specific sequence, and thus polypeptide synthesis takes place. The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide corresponds to the sequence of: rrna nucleotides rrna anticodons mrna codons * trna nucleotides trna anticodons. Infection diseases are treated with antibiotics (streptomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol). They inhibit the following stage of protein synthesis: Translation * Replication Processing Transcription Splicing. Children with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome have a severe form of hyperuricemia accompanied by the formation of tophi, urate calculi in the urinary tracts, as well as serious neuro-psychiatric disorders. The cause of this disease is the reduced activity of the following enzyme: Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase * Xanthine oxidase dihydrofolate reductase Thymidylate synthase carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
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On the ground of clinical presentations a patient was essay prescribed pyridoxal phosphate. This medication is recommended for correction of the following processes:. Synthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases. Oxidative decarboxylation of ketonic acids. Desammation of purine nucleootides. Transamination and decarboxylation of amino acids*.you are studying functioning of a bacteria operon. The operator gene has been listing released from the repressor. Immediately after this the following process will start in the sell:.
Allopurinol was prescribed to decrease the level of going urinary acid. Competitive inhibitor of what enzyme is allopurinol? According to the model of double dna helix that was suggested by watson and Greek, it was astablished that one of chains would not be lost during replication and the second chain would be synthesized complementary to the first one. What way of replication is it? 46-year-old patient complains of pain in joints that becomes stronger the day before the weather changes. Blood examination revealed an increased concentration of uric acid. This substance is accumulated in the blood o the patient due to intensive degradation of the following substance:. It was found out that some compounds for instance fungi toxins and some antibiotics can inhibit activity of rna-polymerase. What process will be disturbed in eukaryotic cell in a case of inhibition of this enzyme?
patients with xeroderma pigmentosum restore the native dna structure slower than cells of healthy individuals as a result of reparation enzyme defection. What enzyme helps this process? Dna polymerase iii,. A 42-year-old man suffering from gout has increased level of urinary acid in blood.
In some regions barbing of south Africa there is a spread sickle-shaped cell anemia, in which erythrocytes have shape od a sickle as a result of substitution of glutamine by valine in the hemoglobin molecule. What is the cause of this disease? Disturbance of mechanisms of genetic information realization. Nowadays about 50 minor bases have found in the t-rna structure besides the main four nitrogenous bases. Choose the minor nitrogenous base:. Rna that contains aids virus penetrated into a leukocyte and by means of reverse transcriptase forced a cell to synthesize a viral dna. This process is based upon:. Methotrexate (structural analogue of the folic acid which is competitive inhibitor of the dihydrofolatreductase) is prescribed for treatment of the malignant tumour.
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A doctor administered Allopurinol to a 26-year-old young man with the symptoms of presentation gout. What pharmacological action of Allopurinol ensures therapeutical effect? by inhibiting uric acid formation. By general analgetic effect,. By increasing uric acid excretion. By general anti-inflammatory effect,. By inhibiting leucocyte migration into the joint.