Heavy sentences handed down to human rights lawyers, microbloggers, grassroots activists, and religious believers dealt an additional blow to those seeking to improve conditions in the country. As xi consolidated his personal power, moving rapidly away from the existing pattern of collective leadership within the party elite, he sought to enforce greater ideological discipline through a propaganda campaign that forbade intraparty dissent and relentlessly criticized Western democratic values. The regime also advanced plans to introduce a social credit system that would connect each citizens financial, social, political, and legal data to produce a single numerical rating of his or her behavior and trustworthiness. A misstep in one area would presumably have repercussions in every other aspect of an individuals life. Beijings growing intolerance for individual autonomy at home was mirrored by its intrusions into the affairs of neighboring societies. The leadership issued an unprecedented ruling on Hong Kongs Basic Law with the aim of preventing pro-independence and prodemocracy politicians from taking their seats in the self-governing territorys legislature.
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Having put down the coup, the government imposed emergency rule that resulted in the arrest of nearly 40,000 civilians, the imprisonment of dozens of journalists for their work, the shuttering of hundreds of media outlets and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs the arrest of the leaders and. Terrorism continued to fuel political upheaval in Europe and the United States despite major territorial losses suffered by is and other extremist groups such as boko haram. France, belgium, and Germany endured high-profile terrorist attacks, an is-inspired mass shooting struck the. State of Florida, and smaller assaults elsewhere in Europe were foiled or interrupted by the authorities. Several European governments reacted by adopting laws that gave enhanced powers to security forces and eased summary constraints on surveillance. More ominously, persistent fears over the upsurge in terrorist attacks stoked public hostility toward Muslim minorities and immigrants, deepening existing social rifts and threatening civil liberties. During the American presidential campaign, donald Trump at various times promised to prevent all Muslims from entering the United States, deport Syrians already in the country, and carry out extreme vetting of the beliefs of refugees and immigrants. Radicalizing authoritarian states The conflicts in the middle east and political upheavals in the democracies often deflected the worlds attention from worsening domestic repression in China, russia, and other authoritarian countries, which stand to gain from a breakdown in democratic norms at the international level. In fact, both beijing and Moscow stepped up efforts to reshape the world in their own image. In China, the communist Party regime led by President xi jinping tightened its grip with the adoption of new laws and regulations on cybersecurity, foreign nonprofits, and religious affairs.
S.-led coalition pounded the Islamic State (IS) militant group in roles the east, but left the pro-Assad alliance undisturbed as it focused its military might on non-is rebels and civilians. Since the war began, each new horror has appeared to deter rather than motivate a coordinated international response. The conflict has only grown more complex and intractable, however, and democratic governments continue to reap the consequences of their hesitation. The enormous refugee flows and is-inspired terrorism generated by the syrian conflict have played an important role in the weakening of democratic standards in Europe and the United States. Arrivals of asylum seekers in Europe declined in 2016, largely due to the hardening of borders in the balkans and an agreement between the eu and Turkey in which Ankara pledged to block irregular departures. But the drop in numbers failed to stem anti-refugee rhetoric, as European political leaders routinely smeared those fleeing conflict zones as criminals, rapists, and terrorists. Moreover, the agreement with Turkey—an already dubious haven for refugees given its raging Kurdish insurgency and regular terrorist attacks—became a deeper source of embarrassment after Turkish president Recep tayyip Erdoğan embraced an unvarnished form of authoritarianism in response to a failed coup attempt in July.
Mozambique — mozambique experienced an increase in political tensions and violence, including the summary abuse of civilian populations by security forces. Nicaragua — nicaragua received a downward trend arrow due to the expulsion of opposition leaders and lawmakers, plus government efforts to silence journalists and academics. Philippines — philippines received a downward trend arrow due to the thousands of extrajudicial killings carried out as part of newly elected president Rodrigo dutertes war on drugs. Poland — poland's downward trend arrow reflects sustained attempts by the ruling Law and Justice party to increase government influence over the media, judiciary, civil service, and education system. South Sudan — south Sudan received a downward trend arrow due to the collapse of a peace deal, the resumption of civil war, and egregious human rights abuses against citizens by government forces and others. Turkey — turkey received a downward trend arrow due to the security and political repercussions of the july coup attempt, which led to mass arrests and firings of civil servants and other perceived enemies. Zambia — zambia's downward trend arrow reflects the restrictive online environment for the political opposition in the run-up to general elections. Syrias impact on democracies While the democratic world stood aside throughout the year, a coalition of repressive dictatorships bombed and shelled Aleppo and other Syrian cities where opponents of President Bashar al-Assad had gained footholds. Assad, with crucial assistance from Russia, iran, and a multinational array of Iranian-backed Shiite militias, clearly regained the initiative in the five-year civil war, whose grinding violence has killed hundreds of thousands of people and displaced millions more.
In the wake of last years developments, it is no longer possible to speak with confidence about the long-term durability of the eu; the incorporation of democracy and human rights priorities into American foreign policy; the resilience of democratic institutions in Central Europe, brazil,. No such assumption, it seems, is entirely safe. Freedom in the world 2017 by Score Freedom in the world 2017 by Aggregate Score Freedom in the world Aggregate Score: 0 worst, 100 best freedom in the world 2017 Trend Arrows The year 2016 was characterized by the erosion of democratic institutions, and left. Of the 11 countries that received trend arrows calling special attention to developments of major significance, only one denotes improvement. Colombia — colombia received an upward trend arrow due to the peace process between the government and left-wing farc guerrillas, leading to a reduction in violence. China — china's downward trend arrow reflects the chilling effect generated by cybersecurity and foreign ngo laws, increased internet surveillance, and lengthy prison sentences for human rights lawyers, activists, and religious believers. Ethiopia — ethiopia received a downward trend arrow due to security forces disproportionate and often violent response to primarily peaceful antigovernment protests. Hong Kong — hong Kong's downward trend arrow reflects beijings encroachment on freedoms in the territory and the central governments unilateral reinterpretation of the basic Law.
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This marked the 11th consecutive year in which declines outnumbered improvements. While in past years the declines in freedom were generally concentrated among autocracies and dictatorships that simply went from bad to worse, in 2016 it was established democracies—countries rated Free in the reports ranking system—that dominated the list of countries dsm suffering setbacks. In fact, Free countries accounted for a larger share of the countries with declines than at any time in the past decade, and nearly one-quarter of the countries registering declines in 2016 were in Europe. Worst of the worst, country/Territory Aggregate Score (out of 100). Syria -1, eritrea 3, north and Korea 3, uzbekistan 3, south Sudan 4, turkmenistan 4, somalia. Sudan 6, equatorial guinea 8, central African Republic 10, saudi Arabia 10, as the year drew to a conclusion, the major democracies were mired in anxiety and indecision after a series of destabilizing events.
In the United States, the presidential victory of Donald Trump, a mercurial figure with unconventional views on foreign policy and other matters, raised questions about the countrys future role in the world. Britains vote to leave the european Union, the collapse of the Italian government after a failed referendum on constitutional reform, a series of antidemocratic moves by the new government in Poland, and gains by xenophobic nationalist parties elsewhere in Europe similarly cast doubt on the. At the same time, russia, in stunning displays of hubris and hostility, interfered in the political processes of the United States and other democracies, escalated its military support for the Assad dictatorship in Syria, and solidified its illegal occupation of Ukrainian territory. China also flouted international law, ignoring a tribunals ruling against its expansive claims of sovereignty over the south China sea and intensifying its repression of dissent within its borders. And unscrupulous leaders from south Sudan and Ethiopia to Thailand and the Philippines engaged in human rights violations of varying scale with impunity.
Africa, free, partly Free, not Free * indicates a territory. Key findings, with populist and nationalist forces making significant gains in democratic states, 2016 marked the 11th consecutive year of decline in global freedom. There were setbacks in political rights, civil liberties, or both, in a number of countries rated Free by the report, including Brazil, the czech Republic, denmark, france, hungary, poland, serbia, south Africa, south Korea, spain, tunisia, and the United States. Of the 195 countries assessed, 87 (45 percent) were rated Free, 59 (30 percent) Partly Free, and 49 (25 percent) Not Free. The middle east and North Africa region had the worst ratings in the world in 2016, followed closely by eurasia. Protesters shouting nationalist and anti-immigrant slogans disrupt a tribute in Brussels, belgium to victims of terrorist attacks.
Credit: Kristof van Accom/AFP/Getty Images. Populists and Autocrats: The dual Threat to Global Democracy. By arch Puddington and Tyler roylance. In 2016, populist and nationalist political forces made astonishing gains in democratic states, while authoritarian powers engaged in brazen acts of aggression, and grave atrocities went unanswered in war zones across two continents. All of these developments point to a growing danger that the international order of the past quarter-century—rooted in the principles of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law—will give way to a world in which individual leaders and nations pursue their own narrow interests. The troubling impression created by the years headline events is supported by the latest findings. Freedom in the world. A total of 67 countries suffered net declines in political rights and civil liberties in 2016, compared with 36 that registered gains.
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Table.6—Composition of Outlays for Grants for Major Public Physical Capital Investment: 19412019. Table.7—Summary of Outlays for the conduct of Research and development: (In Current Dollars, as Percentages of Total Outlays, as Percentages of gdp, and in Constant (FY writings 2009) Dollars). Table.8—Composition of Outlays for the conduct of Research and development: 19492019. Table.9—Composition of Outlays for the conduct of Education and Training: 19622019. Table.1—Gross Domestic Product and Deflators Used in the historical Tables: 19402023. Table.1—Summary comparison of Outlays for payments for Individuals: (In Current Dollars, as Percentages of Total Outlays, as Percentages of gdp, and in Constant (FY 2009) Dollars). Table.2—Functional Composition of Outlays for payments for Individuals: 19402023. Table.3—Outlays paper for payments for Individuals by category and Major Program: Table.1—Summary comparison of Total Outlays for Grants to State and Local governments: (in Current Dollars, as Percentages of Total Outlays, as Percentages of gdp, and in Constant (FY 2009) Dollars) Table.2—Total Outlays. Freedom in the world, freedom in the world 2017, populists and Autocrats: The dual Threat to Global Democracy.
Table.6—Outlays for Mandatory and Related Programs in Constant (FY 2009) message Dollars: 19622023. Table.7—Outlays for Discretionary Programs: 19622023. Table.8—Outlays for Discretionary Programs in Constant (FY 2009) Dollars: 19622023. Table.1—Total Investment Outlays for Physical Capital, research and development, and Education and Training: 19622019. Table.2—Major Public Physical Capital Investment Outlays in Current and Constant (FY 2009) Dollars: 19402019. Table.3—Major Public Physical Capital Investment Outlays in Percentage terms: 19402019. Table.4—National Defense outlays for Major Public Direct Physical Capital Investment: 19402019. Table.5—Nondefense outlays for Major Public Direct Physical Capital Investment: 19402019.
by budget Enforcement Act Category: 19622023. Table.2—Outlays by budget Enforcement Act Category in Constant (FY 2009) Dollars: 19622023. Table.3—Percentage distribution of Outlays by budget Enforcement Act Category: 19622023. Table.4—Outlays by budget Enforcement Act Category as Percentages of gdp: 19622023. Table.5—Outlays for Mandatory and Related Programs: 19622023.
Table.1—Outlays by superfunction and Function: 19402023. Table.2—Outlays by function and Subfunction: 19622023. Table.1—Outlays by Agency: essays 19622023, table.2—Percentage distribution of Outlays by Agency: 19622023. Table.1—Budget Authority by function and Subfunction: 19762023. Table.2—Budget Authority by Agency: 19762023. Table.3—Percentage distribution of Budget Authority by Agency: 19762023. Table.4—Discretionary budget Authority by Agency: 19762023.
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Skip to content, to download the historical Tables as a pdf, click here (340 write pages,.9 mb to download all Historical Tables in xls format as a single zip file, click here (915 KB). Table.1—Summary of Receipts, outlays, and Surpluses or Deficits (- 17892023. Table.2—Summary of Receipts, outlays, and Surpluses or Deficits (-) as Percentages of gdp: 19302023. Table.3—Summary of Receipts, outlays, and Surpluses or Deficits (-) in Current Dollars, constant (FY 2009) Dollars, and as Percentages of gdp: 19402023. Table.4—Receipts, outlays, and Surpluses or Deficits (-) by fund Group: 19342023. Table.1—Receipts by source: 19342023, table.2—Percentage composition of Receipts by source: 19342023. Table.3—Receipts by source as Percentages of gdp: 19342023. Table.4—Composition of Social Insurance and Retirement Receipts and of Excise taxes: 19402023. Table.5—Composition of Other Receipts: 19402023.