All measures mentioned above deal directly with the organisation of sport events. In addition to these measures, the european Convention calls for the parties to take appropriate social and educational measures to prevent violence in and associated with sport (Article.5 in particular by: promoting the sport ideal; giving support to the notion of fair play; encouraging. Every year, parties submit national reports on incidents, new legislative and administrative measures, new regulatory measures adopted by sports organisations and new co-ordination measures, new preventive and social measures, international co-operation. Over the years, the Standing Committee has organised several meetings and seminars (e.g. 1997 Sprint seminar in Rome on "Sport and Law 1998 Sprint seminar in Berlin on "Combating hooliganism. The participants to the berlin seminar agreed that it is important that fans be consulted and involved in decisions that concern them. Relations with supporters should be based on a long-term strategy and on lasting personal contacts. The participants also stressed the importance of educational, social and cultural measures and strategies in preventing violence.
How hooliganism in football has changed - uk essays
If appropriate, parties will consider extraditing suspects, transferring proceedings to the country of residence, or having convicted persons serve their sentences in their own country. Recommendation 1/90 on identification and treatment of offenders draws attention to the provisions of Article 5 of the european Convention and urges Parties to ratify relevant European Conventions. It points to the use of video-recorders and closed circuit television in identifying suspect. It is also recommended that in the case of successful prosecution of offenders, measures are taken which have the effect of preventing individual offenders from attending sports events or particular sports events for a given time, or forbidding access to grounds where such report events take. Article 6 of the european Convention lists additional measures to be taken, viz.: close co-operation with sports organisation, clubs and stadia owners regarding alterations to stadia; promotion of a system laying down requirements for the selection of stadia used for matches likely to attract large. In addition to the specific Recommendations mentioned earlier, two recommendations deal with general measures. Recommendation 2/89 is a comprehensive report on measures to counter hooliganism. It includes lessons learnt from Euro 88 in Germany. Co-operation and co-operation are considered vital for success. Recommendation 1/93 on measures to be taken by the organisers of football matches and public authorities provides a standard checklist of measures to be taken. The checklist is meant to serve as the basis for an agreement between the organisers of a football match and the public authorities of the country where the football match is to be organised about obligations and responsibilities of the organisers of football matches.
To appeal for sensible behaviour. Recommendation 2/88 on preparation for major events recommends that relevant police authorities consider organising before major international competitions training seminars for senior police officers on the organisation of crowd control measures. In Recommendation 2/91 it is recommended that before a major international football championship, the host country should consider organising a conference for all participating police forces to familiarise all participants with each other's plans and intentions, to establish contact with opposite numbers and to identify. Recommendation 2/91 on international police co-operation for international football matches and tournaments is based on experiences from Euro 88 and the world Cup held in Italy in 1990) and contains detailed guidelines to implement Article 4 of the european Convention. The guidelines suggest a framework based on proven good practice. Recommendation 1/97 on the use of standard forms for the exchange fuller of police intelligence concerning high risk sport events follows an initiative by the european Union (Recommendation of on guidelines for preventing and restraining disorder connected with football matches) in order to prevent adoption. Standard forms are provided for the exchange of police intelligence concerning travelling supporters (mode and time of travel, travel route, number and type of supporters, accommodation). Article 5 of the european Convention sees to the identification and treatment of offenders. Spectators committing acts of violence or other criminal acts have to be prosecuted.
Recommendation 1/88 on the use of advisory police spotters recommends that police authorities discuss the possibilities of arranging for advisory plain-clothes policemen from visiting countries to assist local police forces on potential problems for the visiting supporters. In Recommendation 2/91 clarifies the role of visiting police in the host country. It is recognised that responsibility for police action and the maintenance of public order remains with the host country at all times. Nevertheless, the availability of relevant information and intelligence as advice is crucial. Three types of information are necessary: traffic information on number of spectators, dates, routes, means of travel and arrangements for accommodation; intelligence on known troublemakers, their methods of operation and suspected intentions; tactical intelligence identifying known troublemakers travelling to the event and actual intentions. Liaison officers may be useful in observing at first hand the behaviour of supporters from their own country. Another possible role is in dealing publicly with supporters,.
Comprehension of football hooliganism
In a 1997 statement on fences and barriers the Standing Committee notes that perimeter fences and obstacles to protect the playing area restrict views and provide a less welcoming environment. However, the removal of perimeter fences had to depend on: - the introduction of all seater and numbered seats stadia, equipped with closed-circuit television and command and control posts; - adequate management of ticket sales; - the improvement of crowd control management techniques with. In the light of the 1998 World Cup championship the Standing Committee revised its position and its Recommendation 2/99 it recommended to proceed to the removal of fences in sports grounds. In 1998 a discussion was started regarding bans to prevent known hooligans from entering stadia and the validity of such a ban abroad (article.4.d). This discussion was rendered more difficult by the differences in bans used in different countries.
In some countries, bans are decided by a court. In other countries, bans are imposed by clubs or the national football authority. Article 4 of the european Convention supplements Article.1.b and stresses the necessity of international co-operation, both between governments and sports authorities, especially good around matches where violence or misbehaviour by spectators is to be feared. Consultations will have to take place to arrangements, measures and precautions to be taken before, during and after the match concerned. Recommendation 3/87 on police co-operation recommends that Parties nominate correspondents: central contact point within the police for potential problems of football hooliganism. This initiative follows the nomination of permanent correspondents nominated within the european Union.
Over the years, the Standing Committee has taken several initiatives and made a number of recommendations to refine or implement the provisions of the european Convention. Article 2 of the european Convention states that Parties shall co-ordinate their policies and actions, where appropriate through setting up co-ordinating bodies. Article 3 lists a number of measures, including employment of adequate public order resources (3.1.a facilitation of close co-operation and exchange of appropriate information between police forces (3.1.b application and adoption of legislation to punish offenders (3.1.c) and encouragement of responsible supporters' clubs and stewards. Concerning stewarding, in 1999, a standing Committee working Party made a draft Recommendation (No. 1/99) laying down principles on which to base a system of stewarding at sporting events with large attendances. It stipulates that stewards do not originate form supporters clubs but have to be provided by whoever is responsible for the safety of spectators at the match.
The recommendation explicitly states functions of stewards, as well as minimum standards of recruitment, selection, training and assessment. Qualified stewards from the visiting club or country should be permitted to accompany the visiting supporters. Other measures mentioned in Article 3 of the european Convention include the co-ordination of travel arrangements so as to inhibit potential trouble makers from leaving to attend matches (3.3) and practical measures at and within stadia to prevent or control violence and misbehaviour, including:. Recommendation 2/87 on crowd searches explicitly stresses the importance of crowd searches to effect the controls mentioned in article.4.g. Recommendation 1/87 on alcohol sales and consumption recommends the extension of the provisions of article.4.f to include travel arrangements and, where possible, the neighbourhood of stadia before, during and after matches. Concerned by occasions when the free availability of tickets has contributed to outbreaks of spectator violence, recommendation 1/89 provides guidelines for ticket sales and has a detailed appendix with suggestions to control the sale of tickets with a view to reducing the possibility of spectator. Following incidents in the United Kingdom (viz. Bradford and Sheffield recommendation 1/91 on the promotion of safety at stadia lays down principles and rules. In 27 points attention is given to preventive actions and the preparation of efficient responses related to: the danger of fire; the possibility of structural failures; problems inherent in the presence of large crowds.
Football hooliganism in the netherlands: Patterns of Continuity and
Article about football hooliganism in entry Israel Don't be a hooligan. 1931 Ford Model a coupe — ram Rod. European perspective on football hooliganism, otto Adang, background report for the council of Europe. The european Convention on Spectator violence and Misbehaviour at Sports events and in particular at football Matches. The, european Convention on Spectator violence and Misbehaviour at Sports events and in particular at football Matches (hereafter referred to as the european Convention) was adopted by the member States of the council of Europe in 1985 and is considered as the appropriate framework for. It is signed by 34 States and is effective in 29 States (as of March, 1999). The european Convention was adopted in the wake of the tragedy in Brussels, may 1985, when 38 people died in the heysel stadia following spectator violence. According to Article 1 of the european Convention, the parties, with a view to preventing and controlling violence and misbehaviour by spectators at football matches and other sports event in which violence or misbehaviour by spectators is to be feared, undertake to take the necessary. For the purposes of the convention, a standing Committee is established (article 8 which meets once or twice a year.
Sectarian violence has long been a regular factor of crowd violence, as well as offensive chanting, at matches in Scotland between Celtic and Rangers. As a result of the heysel Stadium disaster at Brussels, belgium, in 1985, where rioting led to the death of 39 juventus fans, English clubs were banned from all European competitions until 1990, with liverpool (the English team present) banned for an additional year. According to manchester United hooligan Colin Blaney in his autobiography 'the Undesirables many of the football hooligan gangs in the uk used hooliganism as a cover for acquisitive forms of crime, specifically theft and burglary. This has also been confirmed in numerous other articles on the subject. In the 1980s and well into the 1990s the uk government led a major crackdown on football-related violence. While football hooliganism has been a growing concern in some other European countries in recent years, British football fans now tend to have a better reputation abroad. Although reports of British football hooliganism still surface, the instances now tend to occur at pre-arranged locations including pubs rather than at the matches themselves. English clubs who have made the headlines for the worst and most frequent cases of hooliganism include birmingham City (whose multi racial hooligan element gained the nickname "Zulus" from fans of rival teams in the 1970s when football hooligans were almost always white British Chelsea. External links Chinese nation on Alert over Soccer riots, people's daily Online, chinese football fans riot over penalty, bbc, chinese riot after Japan victory, bbc, rockets, riots and rivalry, observer Sport Monthly, 26 november 2006.
often dubbed the. From the 1970s, many organised hooligan firms sprang up, with most. Football league clubs having at least one known organised hooligan element. Hooliganism was often as its worst when local rivals played each other. Supporters of teams including. Chelsea, leeds United, millwall, tottenham Hotspur, portsmouth. C., west Ham United and, bristol City were among those most frequently linked to hooliganism. Racism became a major factor in hooliganism around the same time, as black players became a regular feature in English league teams. Black players were frequently targeted with monkey chants, and had bananas thrown at them.
In such cases, shop windows may be smashed, rubbish bins set on fire, and police cars may be overturned. In extreme cases, hooligans, police, and bystanders have been killed, and body-armoured riot police have intervened with tear gas, police dogs, armoured vehicles and water cannons. Hooligan-led violence has been called "aggro" shredder (short for "aggravation and "bovver" (the cockney pronunciation of "bother. To "run" opposing hooligans is to make them flee. Hooligans who can afford the time and money may follow the national team on its journeys to away matches and engage in hooligan behaviour against the hooligans of the home team. They may also become involved in disorder involving the general public. While national-level firms do not exist in the form of club-level firms, hooligans supporting the national team may use a collective name indicating their allegiance. Police and civil authorities in various countries with hooligan problems have taken a number of measures, including: banning items that could be used as weapons or missiles in stadia, and searching suspected hooligans banning identified hooligans from stadia, either formally via judicial orders, or informally.
Football hooligans in England publish your master s thesis
English-Russian dictionary of expressions. Lokomotive leipzig fans leave their seats before their team's encounter with. Dynamo Schwerin in the east German, fdgb-pokal in 1990, football hooliganism is unruly, violent, and destructive behaviour by overzealous supporters of association football clubs, including brawling, vandalism and intimidation. Football hooliganism normally involves conflict between gangs, often known as football firms (the term derives from the British slang for a plan criminal gang formed for the specific purpose of intimidating and physically attacking supporters of other teams. Other terms commonly used in connection with hooligan firms include "army "boys "casuals and "crew". Certain clubs have long-standing rivalries with other clubs (usually, but not always, geographically close) and hooliganism associated with matches between them (sometimes called local derbies is likely to be more severe. Conflict may take place before, during or after matches. Participants often select locations away from stadia to avoid arrest by the police, but conflict can also erupt spontaneously inside the stadium or in the surrounding streets.