Proclaimed women of Cape cod as the ideal feminine beauty, 68 specifically, because they were blond, tan, physically fit and educated. In 1959, the barbie fashion doll was introduced as a feminine ideal of modern aesthetic beauty 69 by mattel, in the United States. While there are those who hold Barbie to be the feminine ideal, barbie's anatomical proportions are exaggerated and do not, for example, meet the aesthetic proportions that men in Indo-european cultures find most attractive. This icon of femininity, 73 in the views of some, attracts a wide international audience of women and men. 74 She has been used as a teaching tool for femininity. 75 One of the most common criticisms of Barbie is that she promotes an unrealistic and unattainable idea of feminine beauty and fits the weight criteria for anorexia. 76 In China, female consumers rejected 77 Barbie's ideal of feminine beauty and its image for women as extraneously sexy.
The, feminine, mystique, summary
She was stating that a resume woman's femininity determines her worth and that a womans value is based on the mans default. This "eternal feminine" was constructed because, as she points out, "They are women in virtue of their anatomy and physiology. Throughout history they have always been subordinated to men, and hence their dependency is not the result of a historical event or a social change it was not something that occurred." 65 In order to understand the ideal feminine, one must understand the social constructs. Betty Friedan, who wrote The feminine mystique, also weighs in on the subject of the ideal feminine. She notes that, "The feminine mystique permits, even encourages, women to ignore the question of their identity. The mystique says they can answer the question 'Who am I?' by saying 'tom's wife. Mary's mother.' an American woman no longer has a private image to tell her who she is, or can be, or wants to be 66 and that women are not considered female if they do not abide by these societal norms and mores. Friedan thinks that "the core of the problem for women today is not sexual but a problem of identity a stunting or evasion of growth that is perpetuated by the feminine mystique." 66 At the time this book was written, women were constantly shown their. If ideal femininity is a woman who accepts and encourages femininity in all its forms, the opposite of the ideal feminine would be a lesbian. They may shed the feminine identity in order to build their own identity and fight the "feminine mystique". Monique wittig writes, "lesbian society destroys the artificial (social) fact constituting women as a 'natural group.' and a lesbian society pragmatically reveals that the division from men of which women have been the object is a political one and shows that we have been ideologically rebuilt.
In those days—the last of queen Victoria—every house had its Angel." 64 This relates to simone de beauvoir 's point that women are the "other." beauvoir points out that, "Man can think of himself without woman. She cannot think of herself without man. And she is simply what man decrees; thus called 'the sex by which is meant that. She is sex absolute sex, no less. She is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential biography as opposed to the essential. He is the subject, he is the Absolute she is the Other." 65 beauvoir says that women are the "Second Sex" because they are secondary to men. Her coining of the " eternal feminine " solidifies this idea of ideal femininity.
Virginia woolf writes, "Women have served all these centuries as looking-glasses possessing the magic and delicious power of reflecting the figure of man at twice its natural size." 63 woolf describes her as the Angel of the house. "She was intensely sympathetic. She was immensely charming. She was utterly unselfish. She excelled in the difficult arts of family life. She sacrificed herself daily. If there was chicken, she took the leg; if there was a draught she sat in it—in short she was so constituted that she never had a mind or a wish of her own, but preferred to sympathize always with the minds and wishes. Above all—I need assignment not say it—she was pure. Her purity was supposed to be her chief beauty-her blushes, her great grace.
Gender role socialization relies on modeling and reinforcement girls and women learn and internalize socially expected and acceptable feminine traits and behaviors and are rewarded for gender-appropriate behavior. 62 The Psychology of Women quarterly also mentions that there are numerous psychological problems that are related to femininity among women and adolescent girls. The social construct of femininity has adverse effects on women. What is lacking in current research of femininity is "a tool that allows for understanding women's subjective femininity experiences and assessing their relationships to women's psychological health." 62 What was later developed was the subjective femininity Stress Scale (sfss a scale that measures women's experiences. We also know that "feminine norms from the dominant culture are insidiously powerful and pervasive and are likely to influence every woman living in American society. Empirical evidence suggests that current studies on femininity (i.e. Traits, role norms, gender role stress) may not fully capture the experiences of women from diverse backgrounds." 62 The ideal feminine has been debated for centuries.
The, feminine, mystique - wikipedia
55 One such purpose has been to induce perceived feminine characteristics in women. For centuries in Imperial China, smaller book feet were considered to be a more aristocratic characteristic in women. The practice of foot binding was intended to enhance this characteristic, though it made walking difficult and painful. 56 57 In a few parts of Africa and Asia, neck rings are worn in order to elongate the neck. In these cultures, a long neck characterizes feminine beauty.
58 The padaung of Burma and Tutsi women of Burundi, for instance, practice this form of body modification. 59 60 In China until the twentieth century, tiny, bound feet for women were considered aristocratic and feminine The kayan people of Burma (Myanmar) associate the wearing of neck rings with feminine beauty. 61 The original breast implant prosthesis model from 1963 Ideal feminine edit further information: Cult of Domesticity ; Ideal womanhood ; and good Wife, wise mother What is considered as the ideal feminine is defined by each individual culture based on what that culture considers. Scholarly views edit And we too, shall be mothers, because! By jean-Jacques Lequeu, 1794 to understand the term "ideal feminine we need to understand what femininity. It embodies a constellation of meanings, it generally refers to the attributes, behaviors, interests, mannerisms, appearances, roles, and expectations that we have come to associate with being lamb female during the socialization processes.
43 Clothing and appearance edit main article: Clothing Gender differentiation see also: List of historical sources for pink and blue as gender signifiers In Western cultures, the ideal of feminine appearance has traditionally included long, flowing hair, clear skin, a narrow waist, and little. 5 44 45 In other cultures, however, expectations are different. For example, in many parts of the world, underarm hair is not considered unfeminine. 46 Today, the color pink is strongly associated with femininity, whereas in the early 1900s pink was associated with boys and blue with girls. 47 These feminine ideals of beauty have been criticized by feminists and others as restrictive, unhealthy, and even racist. 45 48 In particular, the prevalence of anorexia and other eating disorders in Western countries has frequently been blamed on the modern feminine ideal of thinness.
49 Muslim woman wearing a head dress (Hijab) In many muslim countries, women are required to cover their heads with a hijab (veil). It is considered a symbol of feminine modesty and morality. 50 51 In history edit In some cultures, cosmetics are associated with femininity cultural standards vary a great deal on what is considered feminine. For example, in 16th century France, high heels were considered a distinctly masculine type of shoe, though they are currently considered feminine. 52 53 In Ancient Egypt, sheath and beaded net dresses were considered female clothing, while wraparound dresses, perfumes, cosmetics, and elaborate jewelry were worn by both men and women. In Ancient Persia, clothing was generally unisex, though women wore veils and headscarves. Women in Ancient Greece wore himations ; and in Ancient Rome women wore the palla, a rectangular mantle, and the maphorion. 54 The typical feminine outfit of aristocratic women of the renaissance was an undershirt with a gown and a high-waisted overgown, and a plucked forehead and beehive or turban-style hairdo. 54 Body alteration edit main article: Body alteration Body alteration is the deliberate altering of the human body for aesthetic or non-medical purpose.
The, feminine, mystique, summary study guide includes comprehensive
Hanegraaff, argue that the definition of femininity is the result of how females must behave in order to maintain a patriarchal social system. 29 book masculinity and Femininity: the taboo dimension of National Cultures, dutch psychologist and researcher geert Hofstede wrote that only behaviors directly connected with procreation can, strictly speaking, be described as feminine or masculine, and yet every society worldwide recognizes many additional behaviors as more. He describes these as relatively arbitrary choices mediated by cultural norms and traditions, identifying "masculinity versus femininity" as one of five basic dimensions revelation in his theory of cultural dimensions. Hofstede describes as feminine behaviors such as "service "permissiveness and "benevolence and describes as feminine those countries stressing equality, solidarity, quality of work-life, and the resolution of conflicts by compromise and negotiation. 41 42 In Carl Jung 's school of analytical psychology, the anima and animus are the two primary anthropomorphic archetypes of the unconscious mind. The anima and animus are described by jung as elements of his theory of the collective unconscious, a domain of the unconscious that transcends the personal psyche. In the unconscious of the male, it finds expression as a feminine inner personality: anima; equivalently, in the unconscious of the female, it is expressed database as a masculine inner personality: animus.
34 Some hold that feminine identity is partly a 'given' and partly a goal to be sought. 36 In 1959, researchers such as John Money and Anke erhardt proposed the prenatal hormone theory. Their research argues that sexual organs bathe the embryo with hormones in the womb, resulting in the birth of interior an individual with a distinctively male or female brain; this was suggested by some to "predict future behavioral development in a masculine or feminine direction". 2 This theory, however, has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds and remains controversial. 37 38 In 2005, scientific research investigating sex and psychology showed that gender expectations and stereotype threat affect behavior, and a person's gender identity can develop as early as three years of age. 39 Money also argued that gender identity is formed during a child's first three years. 34 Mary vetterling-Braggin argues that all characteristics associated with femininity arose from early human sexual encounters which were mainly male-forced and female-unwilling, because of male and female anatomical differences. 7 Others, such as Carole pateman, ria kloppenborg, and wouter.
the cultural image of femininity.". Femininity is sometimes linked with sexual objectification and sexual appeal. 29 30 Sexual passiveness, or sexual receptivity, is sometimes considered feminine while sexual assertiveness and sexual desire is sometimes considered masculine. 30 people who exhibit a combination of both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, and feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification. 31 32 Modern conceptualizations of femininity also rely not just upon social constructions, but upon the individualized choices made by women. 33 Ann oakley 's sex/ gender dichotomy has had a considerable influence on sociologists defining masculine and feminine behavior as regulated, policed, and reproduced in our society, as well as the power structures relating to the concepts. An ongoing debate with regards to sex and psychology concerns the extent to which gender identity and gender-specific behavior is due to socialization versus inborn factors. 2 34 According to diane. Halpern, both factors play a role, but the relative importance of each must still be investigated. 35 The nature versus nurture question, for example, is extensively debated and is continually revitalized by new research findings.
10, contents, history edit, tara williams has suggested that modern notions of femininity in English speaking society began during the English medieval period at the time of the bubonic plague in the 1300s. 13 Women in the early middle Ages were referred to simply within their traditional roles of maiden, wife, or widow. 13 :4 After the Black death in England wiped out approximately half the population, traditional gender roles of wife and mother changed, and opportunities listing opened up for women in society. Prudence Allen has traced how the concept of "woman" changed during this period. 14 The words femininity and womanhood are first recorded in Chaucer around 1380. 15 16 In 1949, French intellectual Simone de beauvoir wrote that "no biological, psychological or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society" and "one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman 17 an idea that was picked. 20 Goffman argued that women are socialized to present themselves as "precious, ornamental and fragile, uninstructed in and ill-suited for anything requiring muscular exertion" and to project "shyness, reserve and a display of frailty, fear and incompetence." 21 Second-wave feminists, influenced by de beauvoir, believed. 22 23 Girls, second-wave feminists said, were then socialized with toys, games, television and school into conforming to feminine values and behaviours.
The, feminine, mystique : Summary
For other uses, see. Fragment of a stone plaque from the temple. Inanna at, nippur showing a sumerian goddess, possibly Inanna (circa 2500 BC). 1, inanna is symbolic of femininity. femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood ) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women. Femininity is partially socially constructed citation needed, being made up of both socially-defined and biologically-created factors. 2 3 4, this makes it distinct from the definition of the biological female sex, 5 6 as both males and females can exhibit feminine traits. Traits traditionally cited as feminine include gentleness, empathy, and sensitivity, 7 8 9 though traits associated with femininity vary depending on location and context, and are influenced by a variety of social and cultural factors.night