75 Only a small band of revolutionaries survived to re-group as a bedraggled fighting force deep in the sierra maestra mountains, where they received support from the urban guerrilla network of Frank país, the 26th of July movement, and local campesinos. With the group withdrawn to the sierra, the world wondered whether Castro was alive or dead until early 1957 when the interview by herbert Matthews appeared in The new York times. The article presented a lasting, almost mythical image for Castro and the guerrillas. Guevara was not present for the interview, but in the coming months he began to realize the importance of the media in their struggle. Meanwhile, as supplies and morale diminished, and with an allergy to mosquito bites which resulted in agonizing walnut-sized cysts on his body, 76 guevara considered these "the most painful days of the war". 77 During guevara's time living hidden among the poor subsistence farmers of the sierra maestra mountains, he discovered that there were no schools, no electricity, minimal access to healthcare, and more than 40 percent of the adults were illiterate.
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Puppet whose strings needed cutting". 70 Although he planned to be the group's combat medic, guevara participated in the military training with the members of the movement. The key portion of training involved learning hit and run tactics of guerrilla warfare. Guevara and the others underwent arduous 15-hour marches over mountains, across rivers, and through the dense undergrowth, learning and perfecting the procedures of ambush and quick retreat. From the start guevara was Alberto bayo's "prize student" among those in training, scoring the highest on all of the tests given. 71 At the end of the course, he was called "the best guerrilla of them all" by their instructor, general bayo. 72 guevara then married Gadea in Mexico in September 1955, before embarking on his plan to assist in the liberation of Cuba. 73 Cuban revolution main articles: Cuban revolution, battle of Santa Clara, and Foco Invasion, warfare, and Santa Clara The first step in Castro's revolutionary plan was an assault on Cuba from Mexico via the Granma, an old, writing leaky cabin cruiser. They set out for Cuba on november 25, 1956. Attacked by batista's military soon after landing, many of the 82 men were either killed in the attack or executed upon capture; only 22 found each other afterwards. 74 During this initial bloody confrontation guevara laid down his medical supplies and picked up a box of ammunition dropped by a fleeing comrade, proving to be a symbolic moment in Che's life.
67 In one instance, hilda describes guevara's obsession with an elderly washerwoman whom he was treating, remarking that he saw her as "representative of the most forgotten and exploited class". Hilda later found a poem that Che had dedicated to the old woman, containing "a promise to fight for a better world, pdf for a better life for all the poor and exploited". 67 During this time he renewed his friendship with Ñico lópez and the other Cuban exiles whom he had met in guatemala. In June 1955, lópez introduced him to raúl Castro, who subsequently introduced him to his older brother, fidel Castro, the revolutionary leader who had formed the 26th of July movement and was now plotting to overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio batista. During a long conversation with Fidel on the night of their first meeting, guevara concluded that the cuban's cause was the one for which he had been searching and before daybreak he had signed up as a member of the july 26 movement. 68 Despite their "contrasting personalities from this point on Che and Fidel began to foster what dual biographer Simon reid-Henry deemed a "revolutionary friendship that would change the world as a result of their coinciding commitment to anti-imperialism. 69 by this point in guevara's life, he deemed that. S.-controlled conglomerates installed and supported repressive regimes around the world. In this vein, he considered Batista a ".
59 After Hilda gadea was arrested, guevara sought protection inside the Argentine consulate, where he remained until he received a safe-conduct pass some weeks later and made his way to mexico. 60 The overthrow of the Arbenz regime and establishment of the right-wing Armas dictatorship cemented guevara's view of the United States as an imperialist power that opposed and attempted to destroy any government that sought to redress the socioeconomic inequality endemic to latin America and. 52 In speaking about the coup, guevara stated: The last Latin American revolutionary democracy that of Jacobo Arbenz failed as a result of the cold premeditated aggression carried out by the United States. Its visible head was the secretary of State john Foster Dulles, a man who, through reviews a rare coincidence, was also a stockholder and attorney for the United Fruit Company. 59 guevara's conviction that Marxism achieved through armed struggle and defended by an armed populace was the only way to rectify such conditions was thus strengthened. 61 Gadea wrote later, "It was guatemala which finally convinced him of the necessity for armed struggle and for taking the initiative against imperialism. By the time he left, he was sure of this." 62 Mexico city and preparation guevara arrived in Mexico city on 21 September 1954, and worked in the allergy section of the general Hospital and at the hospital Infantil de mexico. 63 64 In addition he gave lectures on medicine at the faculty of Medicine in the national Autonomous University of Mexico and worked as a news photographer for Latina news Agency. 65 66 His first wife hilda notes in her memoir my life with Che, that for a while, guevara considered going to work as a doctor in Africa and that he continued to be deeply troubled by the poverty around him.
58 The United States also sponsored a force of several hundred guatemalan refugees and mercenaries who were headed by castillo Armas to help remove the Arbenz government. Though the impact of the. Actions on subsequent events is debatable, by late june, arbenz came to the conclusion that resistance against the "giant of the north" was futile and resigned. 58 This allowed Armas and his cia-assisted forces to march into guatemala city and establish a military junta, which elected Armas as President on July 8, twelve days afterward. 58 Consequently, the Armas regime then consolidated power by rounding up hundreds of suspected communists and executed hundreds of prisoners, while crushing the previously flourishing labor unions and restoring all of United Fruits previous land holdings. 58 guevara himself was eager to fight on behalf of Arbenz and joined an armed militia organized by the communist youth for that purpose, but frustrated with the group's inaction, he soon returned to medical duties. Following the coup, he again volunteered to fight, but soon after, Arbenz took refuge in the mexican Embassy and told his foreign supporters to leave the country. Guevara's repeated calls to resist were noted by supporters of the coup, and he was marked for murder.
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49 This affirmed indignation carried the more aggressive tone he adopted in order to frighten his more conservative relatives, and ends with guevara swearing on an image of the then recently deceased Joseph Stalin, not to rest until these "octopuses have been vanquished". 50 Later that month, guevara arrived in guatemala where President Jacobo Árbenz guzmán headed a democratically elected government that, through land reform and other initiatives, was attempting to end the latifundia system. To accomplish this, President Árbenz had enacted a major land reform program, where all uncultivated portions of large land holdings were to be expropriated and redistributed to landless peasants. The biggest land owner, and one most affected by the reforms, was the United Fruit Company, from which the Árbenz government had already taken more than 225,000 acres (91,000 ha) of uncultivated land. 51 Pleased with the road the nation was heading down, guevara decided to settle down in guatemala so as to "perfect himself and accomplish whatever may be necessary in order to become a true revolutionary." 52 In guatemala city, guevara sought out Hilda gadea acosta. She introduced guevara to a number of high-level officials in the Arbenz government.
Guevara then established contact with a group of Cuban exiles linked to fidel Castro through the july 26, 1953, attack on the moncada barracks in Santiago de cuba. During this period, he acquired his famous nickname, due to his frequent use of the Argentine filler syllable che (a multi-purpose discourse marker, like the syllable " eh " in Canadian English). 53 During his time in guatemala, mfa guevara was helped by other Central American exiles, one of whom, helena leiva de holst, provided him with food and lodging, 54 discussed her travels to study marxism in Russia and China, 55 and to whom, guevara dedicated. 56 On may 15, 1954, a shipment of škoda infantry and light artillery weapons was dispatched from Communist czechoslovakia for the Arbenz government and arrived in puerto barrios. 57 As a result, the United States government—which since 1953 had been tasked by President Eisenhower to remove arbenz from power in the multifaceted cia operation code named pbsuccess —responded by saturating guatemala with anti-Arbenz propaganda through radio and dropped leaflets, and began bombing raids.
39 This was followed in 1951 by a nine-month, 8,000-kilometer (5,000 mi) continental motorcycle trek through part of south America. For the latter, he took a year off from his studies to embark with his friend Alberto Granado, with the final goal of spending a few weeks volunteering at the san Pablo leper colony in Peru, on the banks of the Amazon river. 40 A map of guevara's 1952 trip with Alberto Granado (the red arrows correspond to air travel) guevara (right) with Alberto Granado (left) aboard their "Mambo-tango" wooden raft on the Amazon river in June 1952, which was a gift from the lepers whom they had. 42 Additionally, on the way to machu picchu high in the Andes, he was struck by the crushing poverty of the remote rural areas, where peasant farmers worked small plots of land owned by wealthy landlords. 43 Later on his journey, guevara was especially impressed by the camaraderie among those living in a leper colony, stating "The highest forms of human solidarity and loyalty arise among such lonely and desperate people." 43 guevara used notes taken during this trip to write. The journey took guevara through Argentina, chile, peru, ecuador, colombia, venezuela, panama, and miami, florida, for 20 days, 45 before returning home to buenos Aires.
By the end of the trip, he came to view Latin America not as collection of separate nations, but as a single entity requiring a continent-wide liberation strategy. His conception of a borderless, united Hispanic America sharing a common Latino heritage was a theme that recurred prominently during his later revolutionary activities. Upon returning to Argentina, he completed his studies and received his medical degree in June 1953, making him officially "Dr. 46 47 A motorcycle journey the length of south America awakened him to the injustice of us domination in the hemisphere, and to the suffering colonialism brought to its original inhabitants. — george galloway, british politician 48 guevara later remarked that through his travels in Latin America, he came in "close contact with poverty, hunger and disease" along with the "inability to treat a child because of lack of money" and "stupefaction provoked by the continual. It was these experiences which guevara cites as convincing him that in order to "help these people he needed to leave the realm of medicine, and consider the political arena of armed struggle. 7 guatemala, árbenz, and United Fruit main article: 1954 guatemalan coup d'état A map of Che guevara's travels between 19, including his journey aboard the Granma On July 7, 1953, guevara set out again, this time to bolivia, peru, ecuador, panama, costa rica, nicaragua, honduras. On December 10, 1953, before leaving for guatemala, guevara sent an update to his Aunt beatriz from San José, costa rica. In the letter guevara speaks of traversing the dominion of the United Fruit Company ; a journey which convinced him that the company's capitalist system was a terrible one.
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34 As he grew older, he developed an interest in the latin American writers Horacio quiroga, ciro Alegría, jorge Icaza, rubén Darío and presentation Miguel Asturias. 34 Many of these authors' ideas he cataloged in his own handwritten notebooks of concepts, definitions, and philosophies of influential intellectuals. These included composing analytical sketches of Buddha and Aristotle, along with examining Bertrand Russell on love and patriotism, jack london on society and nietzsche on the idea of death. Sigmund Freud 's ideas fascinated him as he"d him on a variety of topics from dreams and libido to narcissism and the oedipus complex. 34 His favorite subjects in school included philosophy, mathematics, engineering, political science, sociology, history and archaeology. 35 36 years later, a february 13, 1958, declassified cia 'biographical and personality report' made note of guevara's wide range of academic interests and intellect, describing him as "quite write well read" while adding that "Che is fairly intellectual for a latino." 37 Motorcycle journey main. His "hunger to explore the world" 38 led him to intersperse his collegiate pursuits with two long introspective journeys that fundamentally changed the way he viewed himself and the contemporary economic conditions in Latin America. The first expedition in 1950 was a 4,500-kilometer (2,800 mi) solo trip through the rural provinces of northern Argentina on a bicycle on which he installed a small engine.
26 Despite suffering crippling bouts of acute asthma that were to afflict him throughout his interests life, he excelled as an athlete, enjoying swimming, football, golf, and shooting, while also becoming an "untiring" cyclist. 27 28 he was an avid rugby union player, 29 and played at fly-half for Club Universitario de buenos Aires. 30 His rugby playing earned him the nickname "Fuser"—a contraction of El Furibundo (raging) and his mother's surname, de la serna—for his aggressive style of play. 31 Intellectual and literary interests 22-year-old guevara in 1951 guevara learned chess from his father, and began participating in local tournaments by the age. During adolescence and throughout his life he was passionate about poetry, especially that of Pablo neruda, john keats, antonio machado, federico garcía lorca, gabriela mistral, césar Vallejo, and Walt Whitman. 32 he could also recite rudyard Kipling 's " If— " and José hernández 's Martín fierro by heart. 32 The guevara home contained more than 3,000 books, which allowed guevara to be an enthusiastic and eclectic reader, with interests including Karl Marx, william faulkner, andré gide, emilio salgari and Jules Verne. 33 Additionally, he enjoyed the works of Jawaharlal Nehru, franz kafka, albert Camus, vladimir Lenin and jean-paul Sartre ; as well as Anatole France, friedrich Engels,. Wells and Robert Frost.
to create the consciousness of a "new man" driven by moral rather than material incentives, 16 guevara has evolved into a quintessential icon of various leftist movements. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, 17 while an Alberto korda photograph of him, titled guerrillero heroico (shown was cited by the maryland Institute college of Art as "the most famous photograph in the world". 18 Contents 1 Early life 2 guatemala, árbenz, and United Fruit 3 Mexico city and preparation 4 Cuban revolution.1 Invasion, warfare, and Santa Clara.2 la cabaña, land reform, and literacy.3 The "New Man bay of Pigs, and missile crisis 5 International diplomacy. 1944, seated beside him from left to right: Celia (mother celia (sister roberto, juan Martín, Ernesto (father) and Ana maría ernesto guevara was born to Ernesto guevara lynch and Celia de la serna y llosa, on June 14, 1928, in Rosario, argentina, the eldest. In accordance with the flexibility allowed in Spanish naming customs, his legal name (Ernesto guevara) will sometimes appear with "de la serna" and/or "Lynch" accompanying. 22 Referring to Che's "restless" nature, his father declared "the first thing to note is that in my son's veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels ". 23 Very early on in life, ernestito (as he was then called) developed an "affinity for the poor". 24 Growing up in a family with leftist leanings, guevara was introduced to a wide spectrum of political perspectives even as a boy. 25 His father, a staunch supporter of Republicans from the Spanish civil War, often hosted many veterans from the conflict in the guevara home.
8 guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to second in command and played a pivotal role in the victorious two-year guerrilla campaign that deposed the batista regime. 9 Following the cuban revolution, guevara performed a number of key roles in the new government. These included reviewing the appeals and firing squads for those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals, 10 instituting agrarian land reform as minister of industries, helping spearhead a successful nationwide literacy campaign, serving as both national bank president and instructional director for Cuba's. Such positions barbing also allowed him to play a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the bay of Pigs Invasion 11 and bringing the soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to cuba which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. 12 Additionally, guevara was a prolific writer and diarist, composing a seminal manual on guerrilla warfare, along with a best-selling memoir about his youthful continental motorcycle journey. His experiences and studying of MarxismLeninism led him to posit that the Third World 's underdevelopment and dependence was an intrinsic result of imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism, with the only remedy being proletarian internationalism and world revolution. 13 14 guevara left Cuba in 1965 to foment revolution abroad, first unsuccessfully in Congo-kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by cia -assisted Bolivian forces and summarily executed.
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Ernesto che guevara (Spanish: tʃe ɣeβaɾa 4, june 14, 1928 October 9, 1967) 5 was an, argentine, marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat and military theorist. A major figure of the. Cuban revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia in popular culture. 6, as a young medical student, guevara traveled throughout, south America and was radicalized by the poverty, hunger and disease he witnessed. 7, his burgeoning desire to help overturn what he saw as the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by the United States prompted his involvement. Guatemala 's social reforms under President, jacobo Árbenz, whose eventual, cia-assisted overthrow at the behest of the. United Fruit Company solidified guevara's political ideology. 7, later in, mexico city, guevara met raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July movement and sailed to cuba aboard the yacht Granma with the intention of overthrowing. S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio batista.