Some of Machig's children followed her on the spiritual path, becoming accomplished yogins themselves. Tsultrim Allione, a recognised emanation of Machig Labdron, herself was a nun for four years but left to marry and have children. She has spoken of the contribution motherhood has made to her practice:.in Buddhism the image of the mother as the embodiment of compassion is used a lot. She'll do anything for the children. As a mother I felt that depth of love and commitment and having somebody who i really would give my own life for—it was very powerful to have that kind of relationship. I also felt that I didn't really grow up until I had my children.
Short essay on buddhism
The mothers of this chapter were motivated to argumentative become buddhist nuns by grief over the death of their children." 30 However, motherhood in Early buddhism could also be a valued activity in its own right. Queen maya, the mother of gautama buddha, the founder of Buddhism, had a certain following, especially in Lumbini, where she gave birth to him. 31 Since maya died some days after his birth, gautama buddha was brought up by a fostermother, his mother's sister Mahapajapati, who also had two children of her own. She became the first Buddhist nun. Both of her children, her son Nanda and her daughter Sundari nanda joined the buddhist sangha of monastics. The wife of gautama buddha, yasodhara, was the mother of one son named Rahula, meaning "fetter who became a buddhist monk at the age of seven and Yasodhara also eventually became a nun. One of the attractions for women in Vajrayana buddhism of following the path of a yogini rather than that of a bhikkhuni nun essay was the opportunity to practice amidst family life with a husband or spiritual consort and possibly have children. Also yoginis -unlike nuns- were not obliged to shave their hair. Machig Labdrön followed such a path, living in a monastery for a while but later leaving to unite with Topabhadra as her consort. According to machig's namthar he cared for the children while she practiced and taught.
According to peter Harvey "The buddha's apparent hesitation on this matter is reminiscent of his hesitation on whether to teach at all something he only does after persuasion from various devas. 29 The ordination of women in Buddhism is and has always been practiced in some buddhist regions, such as East Asia, is being revived in some countries such as Sri lanka, and is newly beginning in some western countries to which Buddhism has recently spread. Family life in Buddhism edit In the Anguttara nikaya (5:33 buddha tells future wives that they should be obedient to their husbands, please them, and not make them angry through thesis their own desires. Furthermore, the buddha offers advice to married women in the Anguttara nikaya (7:59; iv 91-94 from the pali (Theravada) canon, where he tells of seven types of wives —the first three types are destined for unhappiness, while the last four, as they are imbued with. These latter wives are characterised as caretakers (motherly-wife companions (friend-wife) and submissives (sister-wife and slave-wife)—the buddha thus endorsed a variety of types of wives within marriage. According to diana paul, buddhism inherited a view of women whereby if they are not represented as mothers then they are portrayed as either lustful temptresses or as evil incarnate. 5 Motherhood edit The status of motherhood in Buddhism has also traditionally reflected the buddhist perspective that dukkha, or suffering, is a major characteristic of human existence. In her book on the Therigatha collection of stories of women arhats from the pali canon, susan Murcott states: "Though this chapter is about motherhood, all of the stories and poems share another theme—grief.
26 At the start of the twentieth century, shugsheb Jetsun Rinpoche—also called Ani lochen Chönyi zangmo—founded the Shuksep or Shugsep (Wylie: shug gseb ) nunnery located thirty miles from daddy Lhasa on the slopes of mount Gangri Thökar. 27 28 It became one of the largest and daddy most famous nunneries in Tibet. 24 Shugsep Nunnery, part of the nyingma school, has been re-established in exile in Gambhir Ganj, India. The nuns of Shugsep continue their practices, including Longchen nyingtig and Chöd. 26 Buddhist Ordination of Women edit main article: Ordination of women in Buddhism gautama buddha first ordained women as nuns five years after his enlightenment and five years after first ordaining men into the sangha. The first Buddhist nun was his aunt and foster mother Mahapajapati gotami. Bhikkhunis have to follow the eight rules of respect, which are vows called The eight Garudhammas.
There are predictions from sakyamuni buddha to be found in the thirteenth chapter of the mahayana lotus Sutra, 22 referring to future attainments of Mahapajapati and Yasodharā. In the 20th Century tenzin Palmo, a tibetan Buddhist nun in the Drukpa lineage of the kagyu school, stated "I have made a vow to attain Enlightenment in the female form—no matter how many lifetimes it takes". 23 Female tulku lineages edit In the fifteenth century ce, princess Chokyi-dronme (Wylie: Chos-kyi sgron-me ) was recognized as the embodiment of the meditation deity and female buddha in the vajrayana tradition, vajravarahi. Chokyi-dronme became known as Samding Dorje Phagmo (Wylie: bSam-lding rDo-rje phag-mo ) and began a line of female tulkus, reincarnate lamas. At present, the twelfth of this line lives in Tibet. Another female tulku lineage, that of Shugseb Jetsun Rinpoche (Wylie: Shug-gseb rJe-btsun Rin-po-che ) (c. 24 began in the late nineteenth century. 25 While she received teachings of all the tibetan schools, Shugseb Jetsun Rinpoche was particularly known for holding a lineage of Chöd, the meditation practice of offering one's own body for the benefit of others.
Short, summary, of book
If the aspiration to buddhahood has been made and a buddha of the time confirms it, it is impossible to be reborn as a woman. An appropriate aim is for women to aspire to be reborn as male. They can become a male by moral actions and sincere aspiration to maleness. Being born a female is a result of bad karma. 18 However, the jataka tales (stories of the buddha's past lives as a bodhisattva within the Theravada cannon) mention that the buddha spent one of his past lives as a princess. This is directly contradictory to the assertion that a bodhisattva cannot be born a female.
19 The appearance of female buddhas can be found in ambien the tantric iconography of the vajrayana practice path of Buddhism. Sometimes they are the consorts of the main yidam of a meditation mandala but Buddhas such as Vajrayogini, essay tara and Simhamukha appear as the central figures of tantric sadhana in their own right. 17 Vajrayana buddhism also recognizes many female yogini practitioners as achieving the full enlightenment of a buddha, miranda Shaw as an example cites sources referring to "Among the students of the adept Naropa, reportedly two hundred men and one thousand women attained complete enlightenment". 17 Yeshe Tsogyal, one of the five tantric consorts 20 of Padmasambhava is an example of a woman ( Yogini ) recognized as a female buddha in the vajrayana tradition. According to karmapa lineage however Tsogyel has attained Buddhahood in that very life. On the website of the karmapa, the head of the karma kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism, it is stated that Yeshe Tsogyal—some thirty years before transcending worldly existence—finally emerged from an isolated meditation retreat, (c.796-805 ad as "a fully enlightened Buddha" 21 (samyak-saṃbuddha) citation needed.
9 This is based on the statement of gautama buddha in the bahudhātuka-sutta of the majjhima nikaya in the pali canon that it is impossible that a woman should be "the perfectly rightfully Enlightened One "the Universal Monarch "the king of Gods "the king. 12 However, it is important to note that the corresponding text within the madhyama Agama does not include these lines at all, leading some scholars to speculate whether the lines were a later revision. 13 Earlier limitations on attainment of Buddhahood by women were abolished in the lotus Sutra which opened the direct path to enlightenment for women equally to men. 14 According to nichiren " "Only in the lotus Sutra do we read that a woman who embraces this sutra not only excels all other women but surpasses all men". 15 Women and Buddhahood edit Although early buddhist texts such as the cullavagga section of the vinaya pitaka of the pali canon contain statements from gautama buddha, the founder of Buddhism, speaking to the fact that a woman can attain enlightenment, 16 it is also. In Theravada buddhism, the modern school based on the buddhist philosophy of the earliest dated texts, buddhahood is a rare event.
The focus of practice is primarily on attaining Arhatship and the pali canon has examples of both male and female Arhats who attained nirvana. Yasodharā, the former wife of Buddha Shakyamuni, mother of his son Rahula, is said to have become an arhat after having joined the Bhikkhuni order of Buddhist nuns. In Mahayana schools, buddhahood is the universal goal for Mahayana practitioners. The mahayana sutras maintains that a woman can become enlightened, only not in female form. For example, the bodhisattvabhūmi, dated to the 4th Century, states that a woman about to attain enlightenment will be reborn in the male form. According to miranda Shaw, "this belief had negative implications for women insofar as it communicated the insufficiency of the female body as a locus of enlightenment". 17 Some Theravada suttas state that it is impossible for a woman to be a bodhisattva, which is someone on their way to buddhahood. A bodhisattva can be a human, animal, serpent, or a god, but never a woman. 18 These suttas do not deny women to become awakened, but they are unable to lead a buddhist community.
Buddhism in the world Today (Approaching
There are stories of women and even children who attained enlightenment during the time of the buddha. Furthermore, buddhist doctrines do not differentiate between men and women since everyone, regardless of gender, status, or age, is subject to old age, illness, and mortality, thus the suffering and impermanence that mark conditioned existence apply to all. 10 Feminist scholars have also noted than even when a woman's potential for spiritual attainment is acknowledged, records of such achievements may not be kept—or may be obscured by gender-neutral language or mis-translation of original sources by western scholars. Limitations on Women's Attainments in Buddhism edit According to bernard faure, "like most clerical discourses, buddhism is indeed relentlessly misogynist, but as far as misogynist discourses go, it is one of the most flexible and open to multiplicity and contradiction." 11 In the buddhist tradition. For example, any gods are living in higher realms than a human being and therefore have a certain level of spiritual attainment. Cakravartins salon and Buddhas are also more spiritually advanced than an ordinary human being. However, as the taiwanese nun Heng-Ching Shih states, women in Buddhism are said to have five obstacles, namely being incapable of becoming a brahma king, sakra, king Mara, cakravartin or Buddha.
But the presence of some clearly misogynist doctrines does not mean that the whole of ancient Indian Buddhism was misogynist." 6 Although, there are statements in Buddhist scripture that appear to be misogynist, such as the presentation of women as obstructers of men's spiritual progress. However, in societies where men have always retained access to authority and wider choices, a negative judgement on women's fate might be seen as simply reflecting the empirical political reality. Furthermore, the religious literature is more likely to address men, and hence we find the buddhist emphasis on renunciation of sensual desires expressed in terms of the male thesis attachment to women more frequently than we find the reverse. 7 The mix of positive attitudes to femininity with blatantly negative sentiment has led many writers to characterise early buddhism's attitude to women as deeply ambivalent. 8 Women's Spiritual Attainment edit The various schools and traditions within Buddhism hold different views as to the possibilities of women's spiritual attainments. 9 One significant strand emphasizes that in terms of spiritual attainment, women and men have equal spiritual capabilities and that women not only can, but also in many cases have, attained spiritual liberation. Such a perspective is found in a number of sources of different periods, including early buddhist literature in the Theravāda tradition, mahāyāna sūtras, and tantric writings.
and 'female principle and concluded that no difference is preached in the Shakyamuni's teachings. The establishment of the male principle in equal measure with the female principle is the natural order of things. They should never exist in a mutually exclusive relationship. They should not be an emphasis on one at the expense of the other, for both are indispensable. Will the establishment of the true self be a fact of reality for both men and women. 3, contents, women in Early buddhism edit, the founder of Buddhism, gautama buddha, permitted women to join his monastic community and fully participate in it, although there were certain provisos or garudhammas. As Susan Murcott comments, "The nun's sangha was a radical experiment for its time." 4 According to diana paul, the traditional view of women in Early buddhism is that they are inferior. 5 Rita Gross agrees that "a misogynist strain is found in early Indian Buddhism.
1, however, khandro rinpoche, a margaret female lama in, tibetan Buddhism, downplays the significance of growing attention to the topic: When there is a talk about women and Buddhism, i have noticed that people often regard the topic as something new and different. They believe that women in Buddhism has become an important topic because we live in modern times and so many women are practicing the Dharma now. However, this is not the case. The female sangha has been here for centuries. We are not bringing something new into a 2,500-year-old tradition. The roots are there, and we are simply re-energizing them. 2, as a present evaluation of women (and equality) in Buddhism, masatoshi ueki gave a diachronic textual interpretation.
Buddhism in Sri lanka: a, short, history
Women in Buddhism is london a topic that can be approached from varied perspectives including those of theology, history, anthropology and feminism. Topical interests include the theological status of women, the treatment of women in Buddhist societies at home and in public, the history of women in Buddhism, and a comparison of the experiences of women across different forms of Buddhism. As in other religions, the experiences of, buddhist women have varied considerably. Scholars such as, bernard faure and Miranda Shaw are in agreement that. Buddhist studies is in its infancy in terms of addressing gender issues. Shaw gave an overview of the situation in 1994: In the case of Indo-tibetan Buddhism some progress has been made in the areas of women in early buddhism, monasticism and Mahayana buddhism. Two articles have seriously broached the subject of women in Indian tantric Buddhism, while somewhat more attention has been paid to tibetan nuns and lay yoginis.