The Inscription on the james Ossuary. The inscription on the james ossuary is anomalous. First, it was written by two different people. Second, the scripts are from two different social strata. Third, the first script is a formal inscriptional cursive with added wedges; the second script is partly a commercial cursive and partly archaic cursive. Fourth, it has been gone over by two different carvers of two different levels of competence. Placement of the Inscription, the inscription on the james ossuary is placed to the right hand side of the box, approximately one hands span in width from the outside edge and roughly one-third of the height of the box in distance from the top.
Research Methodology-Interpretation and report writing hypothesis
The size and shape of the james Ossuary are non-standard. The box is custom-made. It is 20 inches in length; the shape is a trapezoid: 10 inches in width at one end and 12 inches at the other. The shape is not convenient for either stacking or side-by-side storage. Its dimensions suggest that the box was intended for one-person storage only. The trapezoidal shape would reduce the amount of room. As the bones were arranged in a specific order, the skull would have been at the 12 inches end. The leg bones are long and the angle would reduce the amount of space. The shape of the box bears a decided resemblance to a truncated Egyptian mummy case. The probability that this is indeed what was meant gains support when writing we turn to the inscription on the side of the box.
There is a relationship between status and ossuary, but this does not reflect the wealth or social status of the encasketed individual(s) (up to three sets of same-family bones can be buried in one ossuary) but the level of literacy and status of the survivors. Thus, to determine the relationship between status and inscription, we would need information on the *survivors* in each case to know who, what, when, how, and why. Size and Shape of Ossuaries, ossuaries were supplied by professional box makers, that is, the boxes were ready-made. From the diversity of decorations, people were given a choice as to which style they wished. They could even have a choice of legs or not. As the ossuaries were stacked or stored right next to each other in the family cave-tomb, for long term storage and visiting, the size of an ossuary tends towards an average of around 24 inches in length by 13-3/4 database inches in height by 12 inches. The boxes were rectangular for ease of storage. The james Ossuary, the size and Shape of the james Ossuary.
People were not concerned with the placement of the inscriptions. Over-carving of the handwriting of the text exactly as written by a professional carver is a standard practice for legally binding covenants, such as formal vows issued at a shrine or between parties to a contract. 11 Ossuary inscriptions, like votive cups and other such offerings, almost never are over-carved. In other words, all those ossuary inscriptions are holographs. Clearly, in such a mass of individual writing, literacy varied tremendously from semi-literates, who wrote only upon occasion and who did not have complete control of graph sizes and could not hold a straight line, to school-boys to scholars. Many inscriptions are by semi-literates. Some are clearly the holographs of literate people.
What is Interpretation and Report Writing in reasearch methodology
As ossuaries contravene the normal rules for negative Jewish burial, the appearance of so many ossuaries in the period before the destruction of the temple is strong evidence that the cemeteries around Jerusalem were extremely short on normal burial space. (The post-70 reduction in ossuaries follows naturally enough from the removal of enough people from the area to reduce the need for bone-boxes. 8) It is not a question of an increase in popularity that accounts for the large number of ossuaries (and even empty unused boxes) but a lack of burial space. This increase also gives us information about the population density of a given area. The correlation between the space constraints indicated by the rise in ossuaries and the density of the population of a given area is natural. Means of Identification on Ossuaries, while today grave markers are carved by professionals, this was not the case in these jewish ossuary inscriptions. The apparently wide variations in ossuary inscriptions comes from a simple fact: these ossuary inscriptions are covenants, vows to affirm continuing respect for the deceased in spite of having disinterred/disturbed his/her remains.
As with any other vow, the text must be in the hand of the one making the vow. 9 Thus (as is noted in the literature a surviving member of the family added the memorial data. The great majority of ossuaries for the first period (30/20 bce - 70 CE) are decorated around the edges with the center left clear. Almost without exception, the inscriptions are just scratched into the boxes with anything handy - a nail, a piece of glass, what have you - and scrawled all over the box any which way by the relative(s) who collected the bones and deposited them. Some are painted with ink and brush. There is one bone-box that the grieving family scratched the name on four or five times - on the side, on the top.
Ossuaries appear in quantity when burial space is at a premium. Solutions to the burial space problem are quite varied. In Classical Greece, for example, low status people were buried in space-saving one-person shaft graves (with a tiny round marker on the spot with the necessary data). The keramikon in Athens has many of these. In Italy, from the renaissance until the late 19th-century, after 3 years, unless a family could afford an ossuary or pay another three years rent, the bones were dumped in a mass grave site - usually a convenient quarry or crevice - and filled with. In Athens, ossuaries are still used (metal boxes today again, that three-year rent period runs.
Even in modern louisiana along the mississippi, water seepage makes it impossible to dig graves of a reasonable depth; the bodies float to the surface. Burials are in family mausoleums set in Cities of the dead, and bones are pushed down to make way for the latest arrival. In Jerusalem of the late first century bce, the solution to the space problem was to use caves, usually carved out the soft rock. Each cave-tomb was the equivalent of a family mausoleum. Wrapped in shrouds, the bodies were either buried or left to decay until reduced to skeletons. At this point, the bones were collected and, if the family could afford it, placed in ossuaries - boxes made of the local limestone. Afterwards, the boxes were stored in the family cave-tombs where they were stacked or stored side-by-side. The name on each box probably faced outwards where it could be read, for survivors would have come to visit the cave to say the prayers for the dead.
Interpretation And Report Writing authorstream
Representatives of this sub-division include the Aramaic font families and African Rustic Capitals. (2) Scripts and fonts of sub-division two have thin finishing strokes with wedges added. Representatives of this sub-division include roman Capitals and Alexandrian-Roman Greek biblical Uncials. Today london we call the finishing strokes that imitate the cuneiform wedge in Branch 2 a serif. (The serif is the line across the bottom and the little hook on the top right and crossbar of, for example,. Ossuaries, according to rahmani (1982) on Jerusalem burial practices, most ossuaries are from the period between 30/20 bce-70 ce - but by no means all. Human remains are not disinterred or displaced without very good reasons.
The largest documents are always those issued by the ruling power. The cuneiform Wedge, a modern printed text tells us by its resume typeface whether its reading matter is serious or frivolous. Back in antiquity, as the cuneiform wedge, the starting wedge produced by the cuneiform wet surface writing technique, was the mark of an authoritative or official script, it was incorporated into all Western official or authoritative script designs. The method for incorporation into the various script designs divides into two distinct branches. Designs of Branch 1 incorporate the wedge into the starting strokes on the individual graphs and imitate very closely the shape of the wedge-and-thin-line cuneiform graph. Representatives of this branch include hebrew Square letter, African half-uncial, and the Insular family of fonts. In designs of Branch 2, the wedge is added as a finishing stroke. Designs of Branch 2 have two sub-divisions. (1) The scripts and fonts of sub-division one have thick finishing strokes.
form changes here, another there, until finally a totally new script arrives. Methods develop; scripts do not develop - they mutate. There may be an unfinished quality to random shards, but ancient formal or official inscriptions and tablets display fully-formed graphic symbol sets designed to work within their respective writing systems. Mensural Base, the mensural base of a writing system is the ayin in Semitic scripts and the o in Latin and Greek scripts. This is called the o base. The o base determines the height of the average graphs in the writing zone and the horizontal spacing between clusters of graphs, which are referred to as expressions. In Semitic writing systems, the spacing between expressions is one-half ayin; in Latin and Greek systems, the spacing between expressions is one. Status, within a specific hierarchy, the size, shape, script, and format are determined by the social status of the author of a text: the higher the status, the wider the margins, the larger the size, the more formal the script.
Script, one term on the list of sub-systems may appear odd; nevertheless, prescribed is correct. Scripts are tightly bound to a online culture's identity. Scripts were a people's visual statement of independence and identification. This last point cannot be emphasized strongly enough. Language does not identify a people: script does. When dealing with inter-ethnic texts, the script identifies a group within the larger context, not a koine. (Although commonly referred to, for example, as bilingual inscriptions, bi-ethnic is a more accurate designation.).
General features of interpretation and report writing - interpreting
Altman, background data, writing Systems. Writing systems are systems in the precise dictionary meaning of the word: A set or assemblage of things connected, associated, or interdependent, so as to form a complex unity; a whole composed of parts in an orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan. The interconnectedness of a writing system means that when we examine only a script system or a spelling system or a content system, we are creating boxes, separating the parts from the whole. Although it is much easier to examine small pieces, we must remember to put the pieces back into their appropriate places, or we lose three quarters of the information. These sub-systems consist of: a finite symbol-set, prescribed graphic symbols (script writing limits, direction of writing, format, size, punctuation, comprehension (white space orthographic, shape, and content systems. Content, the content is important. Content establishes which script, size, and format system should be used. Content itself is determined by other factors: the current ruling powers, whether sacred or secular. In the phonetic-based writing systems, all the sub-systems had to be correct business or the document was not the voice of authority.