Its plot centers on Stephen Gordon, a woman who identifies herself as an invert after reading Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia sexualis, and lives within the homosexual subculture of Paris. The novel included a foreword by havelock Ellis and was intended to be a call for tolerance for inverts by publicizing their disadvantages and accidents of being born inverted. 26 Hall subscribed to Ellis and Krafft-Ebing's theories and rejected (conservatively understood version of) Freud's theory that same-sex attraction was caused by childhood trauma and was curable. 27 In the United States, several secret or semi-secret groups were formed explicitly to advance the rights of homosexuals as early as the turn of the 20th century, but little is known about them. 28 A better documented group is Henry gerber 's Society for Human Rights formed in Chicago in 1924, which was quickly suppressed. 29 Homophile movement (19451969) edit main article: Homophile cover. Lesbian publication The ladder from October 1957. The motif of masks and unmasking was prevalent in the homophile era, prefiguring the political strategy of coming out and giving the mattachine society its name.
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Friedrich Radszuweit published lgbt literature and magazines in Berlin (e.g., die freundin ). Hirschfeld, whose life was dedicated to social progress for people who were transsexual, transvestite and homosexual, formed the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexology) in 1919. The institute conducted an enormous amount of research, saw thousands of transgender and homosexual clients at magoosh consultations, and championed a broad range of sexual reforms including sex education, contraception and women's rights. However, the gains made in Germany would soon be drastically reversed with the rise of nazism, and the institute and its library were destroyed in 1933. The Swiss journal Der Kreis was the only part of the movement to continue through the nazi era. Ussr's Criminal Code of 1922 decriminalised homosexuality. 25 This was a remarkable step in the ussr at the time which was very backward economically and socially, and where many conservative attitudes towards sexuality prevailed. This step was part of a larger project of freeing sexual relationships and expanding women's rights including legalising abortion, granting divorce on demand, equal rights for women, and attempts to socialise housework. During Stalin's era, however, ussr reverted all these progressive measures re-criminalizing homosexuality and imprisoning gay men and banning abortion. In 1928, English writer Radclyffe hall published a novel titled The well of Loneliness.
The 1901 book sind es Frauen? Roman über das dritte geschlecht ( English : Are These women? Novel about the Third Sex ) by aimée duc was as much a political father's treatise as a novel, criticising pathological theories of homosexuality and gender inversion in women. 24 Anna rüling, delivering a public speech in 1904 at the request of Hirschfeld, became the first female Uranian activist. Rüling, who also saw "men, women, and homosexuals" as three distinct genders, called for an alliance between the women's and sexual reform movements, but this speech is her only known contribution to the cause. Women only began to join the previously male-dominated sexual reform movement around 1910 when the german government tried to expand Paragraph 175 to outlaw sex between women. Heterosexual feminist leader Helene Stöcker became a prominent figure in the movement.
The book was so controversial at the time that one bookseller was charged in court for holding copies of the work. It is claimed that Ellis coined the term 'homosexual but in fact he disliked the word due to its plan conflation of Greek and Latin. These early proponents of lgbt rights, such as Carpenter, were often aligned with a broader socio-political movement known as ' free love a critique of Victorian sexual morality and the traditional institutions of family and marriage that were seen to enslave women. Some advocates of free love in the early 20th century, including Russian anarchist and feminist Emma goldman, also spoke in defence of same-sex love and challenged repressive legislation. An early lgbt movement also began in Germany at the turn of the 20th century, centering on the doctor and writer Magnus Hirschfeld. In 1897 he formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee campaign publicly against the notorious law " Paragraph 175 which made sex between men illegal. Adolf Brand later broke away from the group, disagreeing with Hirschfeld's medical view of the " intermediate sex seeing male-male sex as merely an aspect of manly virility and male social bonding. Brand was the first to use " outing " as a political strategy, claiming that German Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow engaged in homosexual activity. May 14, 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical die freundin ( The girlfriend ).
In the 1890s, carpenter began a concerted effort to campaign against discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, possibly in response to the recent death of Symonds, whom he viewed as his campaigning inspiration. His 1908 book on the subject, The Intermediate sex, would become a foundational text of the lgbt movements of the 20th century. Scottish anarchist John Henry mackay also wrote in defense of same-sex love and androgyny. English sexologist havelock Ellis wrote the first objective scientific study of homosexuality in 1897, in which he treated it as a neutral sexual condition. Called Sexual Inversion it was first printed in German and then translated into English a year later. In the book, ellis argued that same-sex relationships could not be characterized as a pathology or a crime and that its importance rose above the arbitrary restrictions imposed by society. 23 he also studied what he called 'inter-generational relationships' and that these also broke societal taboos on age difference in sexual relationships.
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In 1897, ives created and founded the first homosexual rights group, the Order of Chaeronea. Members included Charles kains Jackson, samuel Elsworth Cottam, montague summers, and John Gambril Nicholson. John Addington Symonds was a poet and an early advocate of male love. In 1873, he wrote a problem in Greek ethics, a work of what would later be called " gay history." 20 Although the Oxford English Dictionary credits the medical writer. Chaddock for introducing "homosexual" into the English language in 1892, symonds had already used the word in a problem in Greek ethics. 21 Symonds also translated classical poetry on homoerotic themes, and wrote poems drawing on ancient Greek imagery and language such as Eudiades, which has been called "the most famous of his homoerotic poems".
22 While the taboos of Victorian England prevented Symonds from speaking openly about homosexuality, his works published for a general audience contained strong implications and some of the first direct references to male-male sexual love in English literature. By the end of his life, symonds' homosexuality had become thesis an open secret in Victorian literary and cultural circles. In particular, symonds' memoirs, written over a four-year period, from 1889 to 1893, form the earliest known self-conscious homosexual autobiography. Another friend of ives was the English socialist poet Edward Carpenter. Carpenter thought that homosexuality was an innate and natural human characteristic and that it should not be regarded as a sin or a criminal offence.
17 In 1791, France became the first nation to decriminalize homosexuality, probably thanks in part to jean Jacques Régis de cambacérès, who was one of the authors of the napoleonic Code. With the introduction of the napoleonic Code in 1808, the duchy of Warsaw also decriminalized homosexuality. 18 In 1830, the new Penal Code of the Brazilian Empire did not repeat the title xiii of the fifth book of the "Ordenações Philipinas", which made sodomy a crime. In 1833, an anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defense of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy : Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong? And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong?
17 Three years later in Switzerland, heinrich hoessli published the first volume of Eros: die männerliebe der Griechen (English: "Eros: The male love of the Greeks another defence of same-sex love. 17 lgbt movement emergence edit In many ways, social attitudes to homosexuality became more hostile during the late victorian era. In 1885 the labouchere Amendment was included in the Criminal Law Amendment Act, which criminalized 'any act of gross indecency with another male person a charge that was successfully invoked to convict playwright Oscar Wilde in 1895 with the most severe sentence possible under the. From the 1870s, social reformers began to defend homosexuality, but due to the controversial nature of their advocacy, kept their identities secret. Citation needed a secret British society called the " Order of Chaeronea " campaigned for the legalisation of homosexuality, and counted playwright Oscar Wilde among its members in the last decades of the 19th century. 19 The society was founded by george cecil ives, one of the earliest gay rights citation needed campaigners, who had been working for the end of oppression of homosexuals, what he called the "Cause". Ives met Oscar Wilde at the authors' Club in London in 1892. Oscar Wilde was taken by his boyish looks and persuaded him to shave off his moustache, and once kissed him passionately in the Travellers' Club. Citation needed In 1893, lord Alfred douglas, with whom he had a brief affair, introduced ives to several Oxford poets whom ives also tried to recruit.
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Desire is an amatory Impulse of the inmost human Parts: Are not they, however constructed, and consequently impelling, nature?" roles Jeremy bentham, an early advocate for the decriminalisation of homosexuality. Social reformer Jeremy bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England around 1785, at a time when the legal penalty for buggery was death by hanging. His advocacy stemmed from his utilitarian philosophy, in which the morality of an action is determined by the net consequence of that action on human well-being. He argued that homosexuality was a victimless crime, and therefore not deserving of social approbation or criminal charges. He regarded popular negative attitudes against homosexuality as an irrational prejudice, fanned and perpetuated by religious teachings. 16 However, he did not publicize his views as he feared reprisal; his powerful essay was not published until 1978. The emerging currents of secular humanist thought which had inspired Bentham also informed the French revolution, and when the newly formed National Constituent Assembly began drafting the policies and laws of the new republic in 1792, groups of militant "sodomite-citizens" in Paris petitioned the Assemblée.
However, in Protestant countries, where the church was less severe, there was no general reaction against statutes that were religious in origin. As a result, many of handwriting those countries retained their statutes on sodomy until late in the 20th century. History edit see also: Timeline of lgbt history Enlightenment era edit In eighteenth - and nineteenth-century europe, same-sex sexual behaviour and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws. There were, however, some exceptions. For example, in the 17th century cross dressing was common in plays, as evident in the content of many of William Shakespeare 's plays and by the actors in actual performance (since female roles in Elizabethan theater were always performed by males, usually prepubescent boys. Thomas Cannon wrote what may be the earliest published defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd (1749). Although only fragments of his work have survived, it was a humorous anthology of homosexual advocacy, written with an obvious enthusiasm for its subject. 15 It contains the argument: "Unnatural Desire is a contradiction in Terms; downright Nonsense.
that other members of the community were not understanding to their own, individual, specific needs and would instead make ignorant assumptions, and this can cause health risks. 10 Additionally, bisexual people found that lesbian or gay people were not understanding or appreciative of the bisexual sexuality. Evidently, even though most of these people would say that they stand for the same values as the majority of the community, there are still remaining inconsistencies even within the lgbtiq community. 11 lgbt movements have often adopted a kind of identity politics that sees gay, bisexual and transgender people as a fixed class of people; a minority group or groups, and this is very common among lgbt communities. 12 Those using this approach aspire to liberal political goals of freedom and equal opportunity, and aim to join the political mainstream on the same level as other groups in society. 13 In arguing that sexual orientation and gender identity are innate and cannot be consciously changed, attempts to change gay, lesbian and bisexual people into heterosexuals conversion therapy are generally opposed by the lgbt community. Such attempts are often based in religious beliefs that perceive gay, lesbian and bisexual activity as immoral. However, others within lgbt movements have criticised identity politics as limited and flawed, elements of the queer movement have argued that the categories of gay and lesbian are restrictive, and attempted to deconstruct those categories, which are seen to "reinforce rather than challenge a cultural.
5, there is a struggle for lgbt rights today. 6, lgbt movements organized today are made up of a wide range of political activism and cultural activity, including lobbying, street marches, social groups, media, art, and research. Sociologist Mary bernstein writes: "For the lesbian and gay movement, then, cultural goals include (but are not limited to) challenging dominant constructions of masculinity and femininity, homophobia, and the primacy of the gendered heterosexual nuclear family ( heteronormativity ). Political goals include changing laws and policies in order to gain new rights, benefits, and protections from harm." 7 Bernstein emphasizes that activists seek both types of goals in both the civil and political spheres. As with other social movements, there is also conflict within and between lgbt movements, especially about strategies for change and debates over exactly who represents the constituency of these movements, and this also applies to changing education. 8 There is debate over what extent lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender people, intersexed people, and others share common presentation interests and a need to work together. Leaders of the lesbian and gay movement of the 1970s, 80s and 90s often attempted to hide masculine lesbians, feminine gay men, transgender people, and bisexuals from the public eye, creating internal divisions within lgbt communities.
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender lgbt essay ) social movements are social movements that advocate for lgbt people in society. Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the 2000's movement for marriage equality, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Earlier movements focused on self-help and self-acceptance, such as the homophile movement of the 1950s. Although there is not a primary or an overarching central organization that represents all lgbt people and their interests, numerous. Lgbt rights organizations are active worldwide. The earliest organizations to support lgbt rights were formed in the 19th century. Citation needed, a commonly stated goal among these movements is social equality for lgbt people, but there is still denial of full lgbt rights. 4, some have also focused on building lgbt communities or worked towards liberation for the broader society from biphobia, homophobia, and transphobia.