32 Chimamanda Ngozi adichie (1977) is a novelist, nonfiction writer and short story writer. 33 a macArthur Genius Grant recipient, Adichie has been called "the most prominent" of a "procession of critically acclaimed young anglophone authors that is succeeding in attracting a new generation of readers to African literature ". 34 Buchi Emecheta obe ( ) is a nigerian novelist based in Britain who has published more than 20 books, including Second-Class Citizen (1974 The Bride Price (1976 The Slave girl (1977) and The joys of Motherhood (1979). Her themes of child slavery, motherhood, female independence and freedom through education have won her considerable critical acclaim and honours, including an Order of the British Empire south Africa edit see also: south African poetry Elleke boehmer (cf. Cullhed, 2006: 79) writes, nationalism, like patriarchy, favours singleness—one identity, one growth pattern, one birth and blood for all. And will promote specifically unitary or one-eyed forms of consciousness. The first problem any student of south African literature is confronted with, is the diversity of the literary systems.
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His style relies heavily on the Igbo oral tradition, and combines straightforward narration with representations of folk stories, proverbs, and oratory. He also published a number of short stories, children's books, and essay fever collections. Wole soyinka (1934 ) is a playwright and poet, who was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature, 30 the first African to be honored in that category. Soyinka was born into a yoruba family in Abeokuta. After study in Nigeria and the uk, he worked with the royal court Theatre in London. He went on to write plays that were produced in both countries, in theatres and on radio. He took an active role in Nigeria 's political history and its struggle for independence from Great Britain. In 1965, he seized the western Nigeria broadcasting Service studio and broadcast a demand for the cancellation of the western Nigeria regional Elections. In 1967 during the nigerian civil War, he was arrested by the federal government of General yakubu gowon and put in solitary confinement for two years. 31 soyinka has been a strong critic of successive nigerian governments, especially the country's many military dictators, as well as other political tyrannies, including the mugabe regime in Zimbabwe. Much of his writing has been concerned with "the oppressive boot and the irrelevance of the colour of the foot that wears it".
His work includes novels, plays, short stories, and essays, ranging resumes from literary and social criticism to children's literature. He is the founder and editor of the gikuyu-language journal Mũtĩiri. Bate besong ( ) was a cameroonian playwright, poet and critic, who was described by pierre fandio as one of the most representative and regular writers of what might be referred to as the second generation of the emergent Cameroonian literature in English". 27 Other Cameroonian playwrights are Anne tanyi-tang, 28 and Bole butake. Nigeria edit nigerian author Chinua achebe (1930 13) gained worldwide attention for Things Fall Apart in the late 1950s. Achebe wrote his novels in English and defended the use of English, a "language of colonisers in African literature. In 1975, his lecture An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" featured a famous criticism of Joseph Conrad as "a thoroughgoing racist". A titled Igbo chieftain himself, 29 Achebe's novels focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effect of Christian influences, and the clash of Western and traditional African values during and after the colonial era.
Another significant African novel is season of Migration to the north by tayib Salih from the sudan. Doris Lessing ( ) from southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, published her first novel The Grass is Singing in 1950, after immigrating to England. She initially wrote about her African experiences. Lessing soon became a dominant presence in the English literary scene, frequently publishing right through the century, and won the nobel prize for literature in 2007. Yvonne vera ( ) was an award-winning author from Zimbabwe. Her novels are known for their poetic prose, difficult subject-matter, and their strong women characters, and are firmly rooted in Zimbabwe's difficult past. Tsitsi dangarembga (1959 ) is notable zimbabwean author and filmmaker. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (1938 ) 26 is a kenyan writer, formerly working in English and now working in gikuyu.
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24 Sally morgan 's novel my place (1987) was considered a breakthrough memoir in terms of bringing indigenous stories to wider notice. Leading aboriginal activists Marcia langton ( First Australians, 2008) and noel pearson ( Up From the mission, 2009) are active contemporary contributors to australian literature. The voices of Indigenous Australians are being increasingly noticed and include the playwright Jack davis and kevin Gilbert. Writers coming to prominence in the 21st century include kim Scott, alexis Wright, kate howarth Tara june winch, in poetry yvette holt and in popular fiction Anita heiss. Indigenous authors who have won Australia's high prestige miles Franklin Award include kim Scott who was joint winner (with Thea astley ) in 2000 for Benang and again in 2011 for That deadman Dance. Alexis Wright won the award in 2007 for her novel Carpentaria.
Many notable works have been written by non-indigenous Australians on aboriginal themes. Eleanor Dark 's (19011985) The timeless Land (1941) is the first of The timeless Land trilogy of novels about European settlement fashion and exploration of Australia. The narrative is told from English and Aboriginal points of view. The novel begins with two Aboriginal men watching the arrival of the first Fleet at Sydney harbour on Other examples include the poems of Judith Wright, the Chant of Jimmie blacksmith by Thomas Keneally, ilbarana by donald Stuart, and the short story by david messaging Malouf. 25 main article: African literature see also: poetry in Africa see also: Kenyan literature and Literature of Madagascar Colonialism in 1913: the African colonies of the european empires; and the postcolonial, contemporary political boundaries of the decolonized countries. (Click image, then click "More details and scroll down) Amadou hampâté bâ (1901 1991) a malian writer and ethnologist, and ayi kwei armah (1939 ) from Ghanaian, author of Two Thousand seasons have tried to establish an African perspective to their own history.
Among his works is leaves of the banyan Tree (1979). He is of German heritage through his paternal great-grandfather, which is reflected in some of his poems. 16 he describes his family heritage as "totally samoan even though he has a german surname. However, he does not explicitly deny his German heritage. 17 Another notable figure from the region is sia figiel (1967 a contemporary samoan novelist, poet, and painter, whose debut novel Where we once belonged won the commonwealth Writers' Prize best First book of 1997, south East Asia and south Pacific Region.
18 sia figiel grew up amidst traditional Samoan singing and poetry, which heavily influenced her writing. Figiel's greatest influence and inspiration in her career is the samoan novelist and poet, Albert Wendt. 19 Australia edit main article: Australian literature Aboriginal writers and themes At the point of the first colonization, Indigenous Australians had not developed a system of writing, so the first literary accounts of aborigines come from the journals of early european explorers, which contain descriptions. 20 Early accounts by dutch explorers and the English buccaneer William Dampier wrote of the "natives of New Holland " as being "barbarous savages but by the time of Captain James cook and First Fleet marine watkin Tench (the era of jean-Jacques rousseau accounts. We europeans wrote cook in his journal on 21 While his father, james Unaipon (c.1835-1907 contributed to accounts of aboriginal mythology written by the missionary george taplin, 22 david Unaipon (18721967) provided the first accounts of aboriginal mythology written by an aboriginal: Legendary tales. For this he is known as the first Aboriginal author. Oodgeroo noonuccal (19201995) (born Kath Walker) was an Australian poet, political activist, artist and educator. She was also a campaigner for Aboriginal rights. 23 Oodgeroo was best known for her poetry, and was the first Aboriginal Australian to publish a book of verse we are going (1964).
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11 Promoted by the unia as a movement of African list Redemption, garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the nation of Islam to the rastafari movement (some sects of which proclaim Garvey as a prophet). Postcolonial feminist literature edit postcolonial feminism emerged as a response to the eurocentric focus of feminism. Postcolonial feminism seeks to account for the way that racism and assignment the long-lasting political, economic, and cultural effects of colonialism affect non-white, non-Western women in the postcolonial world. 12 Pacific Islands edit The pacific Islands comprise 20,000 to 30,000 islands in the pacific Ocean. Depending on the context, it may refer to countries and islands with common Austronesian origins, islands once or currently colonized, or Oceania. There is a burgeoning group of young pacific writers who respond and speak to the contemporary pasifika experience, including writers Lani wendt young, courtney sina meredith and Selina tusitala marsh, among others. Reclamation of culture, loss of culture, diaspora, all themes common to postcolonial literature, are present within the collective pacific writers. Pioneers of the literature include two of the most influential living authors from this region: Witi Ihimaera, new zealand 's first published māori novelist, 13 and Samoan poet Albert Wendt (1939 ). 14 15 Wendt lives in New zealand.
Citation needed négritude is a literary and ideological philosophy, developed by francophone African intellectuals, writers, and politicians in France during the 1930s. Its initiators included Martinican poet Aimé césaire, léopold Sédar Senghor (a future President of Senegal and léon Damas of French guiana. Négritude resume intellectuals disapproved of French colonialism and claimed that the best strategy to oppose it was to encourage a common racial identity for native africans worldwide. Back to Africa movement edit marcus Mosiah Garvey,. ( 10 was a jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a proponent of the pan-Africanism movement, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities league ( unia-acl ). 11 he also founded the Black Star Line, a shipping and passenger line which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands. Prior to the 20th century, leaders such as Prince hall, martin Delany, edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs. However, garvey was unique in advancing a pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa. The philosophy came to be known as Garveyism.
colonial discourse, either by modifying or by subverting it, or both. The anti-conquest narrative recasts the indigenous inhabitants of colonized countries as victims rather than foes of the colonisers. 8 This depicts the colonised people in a more human light but risks absolving colonisers of responsibility for addressing the effects of colonisation by assuming that native inhabitants were "doomed" to their fate. 8 Mary Pratt, however, proposes a completely different theorization of "anti-conquest" than the ideas discussed here, that can be traced to Edward said. Instead of referring to how natives resist colonization or are victims of it, Pratt analyzes European literatures in which a european narrates their adventures and struggles to survive in the land of the non-European Other. 9 The anti-conquest is a function of how the narrator writes him or her self out of being responsible for or an agent, direct or indirect, of colonization and colonialism. This different notion of anti-conquest is used to analyze the ways in which colonialism and colonization are legitimized nonetheless through entertaining stories of survival and adventure. Pratt created this unique notion in association with concepts of contact zone and transculturation, which have been very well received in Latin America social and human science circles.
Critical approaches edit, in, la réforme intellectuelle et morale (1871 the, orientalist, first ernest Renan advocated imperial stewardship for civilising the nonWestern peoples of the world. Amongst prominent theorists are, edward said, gayatri Spivak, frantz fanon, bill Ashcroft, ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, chinua achebe, leela gandhi, gareth Griffiths, abiola Irele, john McLeod, hamid Dabashi, helen Tiffin, khal Torabully, and Robert young. Another important theorist is Harvard University professor Homi k bhabha, (1949 ). He is one of the most important figures in contemporary post-colonial studies, and has developed a number of the field's neologisms and key concepts, such as hybridity, third-space, mimicry, difference, and ambivalence. 2 Frantz Omar Fanon ( ) was a martinique -born Afro-caribbean psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism. 3 As an intellectual, fanon was a political radical, pan-Africanist, and a marxist humanist concerned with the psychopathology of colonization, 4 and the human, social, and cultural consequences of decolonization. 5 6 7 Post-colonial literary theory re-examines colonial literature, especially concentrating upon the social discourse, between the colonizer and the colonized, that shaped and produced the literature.
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Imperialism and colonization in 1900, postcolonial literature is the literature by people from formerly colonised countries. It exists on all continents except, antarctica. Postcolonial literature often addresses the problems and consequences of the decolonization of a country, especially questions relating to the political and cultural independence of formerly subjugated general people, and themes such as racialism and colonialism. A range of literary theory has evolved around the subject. Migrant literature and postcolonial literature show some considerable overlap. However, not all migration takes place in a colonial setting, and not all postcolonial literature deals with migration. A question of current debate is the extent to which postcolonial theory also speaks to migration literature in non-colonial settings.