At the same time we authorise you to give all suitable encouragement to translators of European works into the vernacular languages and also to provide for the compilation of a proper series of Vernacular Class books according to the plan which Lord Auckland has proposed. The east India company also resumed subsidising the publication of Sanscrit and Arabic works, but now by a grant to the Asiatic Society rather than by undertaking publication under their own auspices. 13 Mill's later views edit In 1861, mill in the last chapter On the government of Dependencies of his 'considerations on Representative government' restated the doctrine macaulay had advanced a quarter of a century earlier the moral imperative to improve subject peoples, which justified reforms. Conditions of society in which, there being no spring of spontaneous improvement in the people themselves, their almost only hope of making any steps in advance to 'a higher civilisation' depends on the chances of a good despot. Under a native despotism, a good despot is a rare and transitory accident: but when the dominion they are under is that of a more civilised people, that people ought to be able to supply it constantly. The ruling country ought to be able to do for its subjects all that could be done by a succession of absolute monarchs guaranteed by irresistible force against the precariousness of tenure attendant on barbarous despotisms, and qualified by their genius to anticipate all that. Such is the ideal rule of a free people over a barbarous or semi-barbarous one.
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Even if they did the essay current learned classes of India commanded widespread respect in Indian culture, and that one of the london reasons they did so was the lack of practical uses for their learning; they were pursuing learning as an end in itself, rather than. The same could not reliably said of those seeking an 'English education and therefore it was doubtful how they would be regarded by Indian society and therefore how far they would be able to influence it for the better. It would have been a better policy to continue to conciliate the existing learned classes, and to attempt to introduce european knowledge and disciplines into their studies and thus make them the desired interpreter class. This analysis was acceptable to east India company's court of Directors but unacceptable to their political masters (because it effectively endorsed the previous policy of 'engraftment and John Cam Hobhouse insisted on the despatch being redrafted to be a mere holding statement noting the Act. After the Act edit reversion to favouring traditional colleges edit by 1839 Lord Auckland had succeeded Bentinck as governor-General, and Macaulay had returned to England. Auckland contrived to find sufficient funds to support the English Colleges set up by bentinck's Act without continuing to run down the traditional Oriental colleges. He wrote a minute (of 24 november 1839) giving effect to this; both Oriental and English colleges were to be adequately funded. The east India company directors responded with a despatch in 1841 endorsing the twin-track approach and suggesting a third: we forbear at present from expressing an opinion regarding the most efficient mode of communicating and disseminating European Knowledge. Experience does not yet warrant the adoption of any exclusive system. We wish a fair trial to be given to the experiment of engrafting European Knowledge on the studies of the existing learned Classes, encouraged as it will be by giving to the seminaries in which those studies are prosecuted, the aid of able and efficient.
Third, It has come to the knowledge of the governor-General in council that a large sum has been expended by the committee on the printing of Oriental works; his Lordship in council directs that no portion of the funds shall hereafter be so employed. Fourth, his Lordship in council directs that all the funds which these reforms will leave at the disposal of the committee be henceforth employed in imparting to the native population a knowledge of English literature and science through the medium of the English language; and. 9 Opposition in London suppressed edit On the news of the Act reaching England, a despatch giving the official response of the company's court of Directors was drafted within India house (the company's London office). James Mill was a leading figure within the India house (as well as being a leading utilitarian philosopher ). Although he was known to favour education in the vernacular languages of India, otherwise he might have been expected to be broadly in favour of the Act. However, he was by then a dying man, and the task of drafting the response fell to his son John Stuart Mill. The younger Mill was thought to hold similar views to his father, but his draft despatch turned out to be quite critical of the Act. Mill argued that students seeking an 'English education' in order to prosper could simply acquire enough of the requisite practical accomplishments (facility in English etc.) to prosper without bothering to acquire the cultural attitudes; for example it did not follow that at the same time.
9 The Act edit bentinck endorsed the minute, writing that he was in full agreement with the sentiments expressed. 11 However, students at the calcutta london madrassa raised a petition against its closure; this quickly got considerable support and the madrassa and its Hindu equivalent were therefore retained. Otherwise the Act endorsed and implemented the policy macaulay had argued for. The governor-General of India in council has attentively considered the two letters from the secretary to the committee of Public Instruction, 12 dated the 21st and 22nd January last, and the papers referred to in them. First, his Lordship in council is of opinion that the great object of the British government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India; and that all the funds appropriated for the purpose of education would be best. Second, but it is not the intention of His Lordship in council to abolish any college or School of native learning, while the native population shall appear to be inclined to avail themselves of the advantages which it affords, and His Lordship in council directs. But his lordship in council decidedly objects to the practice which has hitherto prevailed of supporting the students during the period for of their education. He conceives that the only effect of such a system can be to give artificial encouragement to branches of learning which, in the natural course of things, would be superseded by more useful studies and he directs that no stipend shall be given to any.
I have conversed both here and at home with men distinguished by their proficiency in the eastern tongues. I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. 9 10 Honours might be roughly even in works of the imagination, such as poetry, but when we pass from works of imagination to works in which facts are recorded, and general principles investigated, the superiority of the europeans becomes absolutely immeasurable." 9 he returned. It may be safely said, that the literature now extant in that language is of far greater value than all the literature which three hundred years ago was extant in all the languages of the world together. The question now before us is simply whether, when it is in our power to teach this language, we shall teach languages, by which, by universal confession, there are not books on any subject which deserve to be compared to our own; whether, when. 9 Mass education would be (in the fullness of time) by the class of Anglicised Indians the new policy should produce, and by the means of vernacular dialects: In one point I fully agree with the gentlemen to whose general views i am opposed. I feel with them, that it is impossible for us, with our limited means, to attempt to educate the body of the people. We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the.
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To have found a great people sunk in the lowest depths of slavery and superstition, to shiloh have so ruled them as to have made them desirous and capable of all the privileges of citizens would indeed be a title to glory all our own. 5 The sceptre may pass away from. Unforeseen accidents may derange our most profound schemes of policy victory may be inconstant to our arms. But there are triumphs which are followed by no reverses. There bloom is an empire exempt from all natural causes of decay.
Those triumphs are the pacific triumphs of reason over barbarism; that empire is the imperishable empire of our arts and our morals, our literature and our laws. 6 Macaulay's "Minute Upon Indian Education" edit to remove all doubt, however, macaulay produced and circulated a minute on the subject. 7 Macaulay argued that support for the publication of books in Sanskrit and Arabic should be withdrawn, support for traditional education should be reduced to funding for the madrassa at Delhi and the hindu college at Benares, but students should no longer be paid. 8 The money released by these steps should instead go to fund education in Western subjects, with English as the language of instruction. He summarised his argument: to sum up what I have said, i think it is clear that we are not fettered by the Act of Parliament of 1813; that we are not fettered by any pledge expressed or implied; that we are free to employ. 9 Macaulays comparison of Arabic and Sanskrit literature to what was available in English is forceful, colourful, and nowadays often"d against him.
Or do we think that we can give them knowledge without awakening ambition? Or do we mean to awaken ambition and to provide it with no legitimate vent? Who will answer any of these questions in the affirmative? Yet one of them must be answered in the affirmative, by every person who maintains that we ought permanently to exclude the natives from high office. I have no fears. The path of duty is plain before us: and it is also the path of wisdom, of national prosperity, of national honour.
The destinies of our Indian empire are covered with thick darkness. It is difficult to form any conjecture as to the fate reserved for a state which resembles no other in history, and which forms by itself a separate class of political phenomena. The laws which regulate its growth and its decay are still unknown. It may be that the public mind of India may expand under our system till it has outgrown that system; that by good government we may educate our subjects into a capacity for better government, that, having become instructed in European knowledge, they may,. Whether such a day will ever come i know not. But never will i attempt to avert or to retard. Whenever it comes, it will be the proudest day in English history.
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In 1833 in write the house of Commons Macaulay (then mp for leeds 3 had spoken in favour of renewal of the company's charter, in terms which make his own views on the culture and society of the sub-continent adequately clear: I see a government. Even in its errors I recognize a paternal feeling towards the great people committed to its charge. I see toleration strictly maintained. Yet I see bloody and degrading superstitions gradually losing their power. I see the morality, the philosophy, the taste of Europe, beginning to produce a salutary effect on the hearts and understandings of our subjects. I see the public mind of India, that public mind which we found debased and contracted by the worst forms of political and religious tyranny, expanding itself to just and noble views of the ends of government and of the social duties of man. Finishing with a peroration holding it a moral imperative to educate the Indians in English ways, not to keep them submissive but to give them the potential eventually to claim the same rights as the English: What is that power worth which is founded. We are free, we are civilized, to little purpose, if we grudge to any portion of the human race an equal measure of freedom and civilization. Are we to keep the people of India ignorant in order that we may keep them submissive?
and promotion of literature and. By the early 1820s some administrators within the east India company were questioning if this was a sensible use of the money. James Mill noted that the declared purpose of the. Madrassa (Mohammedan College) and the, hindu college in Calcutta set up by the company had been "to make a favourable impression, by our encouragement of their literature, upon the minds of the natives" but took the view that the aim of the company should have. Broadly similar issues (classical education vs liberal education) had already arisen for education in England with existing grammar schools being unwilling (or legally unable) to give instruction in subjects other than Latin or Greek and were to end in an expansion of their curriculum. In the Indian situation a complicating factor was that the 'classical education' reflected the attitudes and beliefs of the various traditions in the sub-continent, 'english education' clearly did not, and there was felt to be a danger of an adverse reaction among the existing learned. This led to divided counsels within the committee of Public Instruction. Thomas Babington Macaulay, who was Legal Member of the council of India, and was to be President of the committee, refused to take up the post until the matter was resolved, and sought a clear directive from the governor-General on the strategy to be adopted. It should have been clear what answer Macaulay was seeking, given his past comments.
Persian this led eventually to English becoming one of the languages of India, rather than simply the native tongue of its foreign rulers. In discussions leading up to the Act. Thomas Babington Macaulay produced his famous Memorandum on (Indian) Education which was scathing on the inferiority (as he saw it) of native (particularly hindu) culture and learning. He argued that Western learning was superior, and currently could only be taught through the medium of English. There was therefore a need to produce - by English-language higher education -" a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect" who fuller could in their turn develop the tools to transmit Western learning. Among Macaulay's recommendations were the immediate stopping of the printing by the east India company of Arabic and Sanskrit books and that the company should not continue to support traditional education beyond "the sanscrit College at Benares and the mahometan College at Delhi" (which. The Act itself, however, took a less negative attitude to traditional education and was soon succeeded by further measures based upon the provision of adequate funding for both approaches. Vernacular language education, however, continued to receive little funding, although it had not been much supported before 1835 in any case.
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The, english Education Act was a legislative act of the. Council of India in 1835 giving effect to a decision in 1835. Lord essay William Bentinck, then, governor-General of, british India, to reallocate funds the, east India company was required by the. British Parliament to spend on education and literature. Formerly, they had supported traditional Muslim and Hindu education and the publication of literature in the native learned tongues (. Sanskrit and, persian henceforward they were to support establishments teaching a western curriculum with English as the language of instruction. Together with other measures promoting English as the language of administration and of the higher law courts (replacing.