Grammar summary pdf

grammar summary pdf

Grammar, summary for Ise ii, pdf, free download

It is used by speakers to express a strong wish,. 'long live the president! dabogda ti se sjeme zatrlo! (an archaic and dialectal curse etc. The optative may be translated into English by an imperative construction, with set phrases (such as the already exemplified 'long live or by use of the modal verb may. suggest existence of subjunctive mood, realized as da plus the present of indicative, but most grammars treat it as present indicative.

Pdf summary of english grammar - summary of english grammar

Future ii uses the perfective future of biti (the only verb with a simple future) plus the perfect participle,. Pluperfect, which is not often used, uses the composite past tense of biti plus the perfect participle,. Bio sam došao, or (archaic) imperfect of biti plus the participle,. Also, whereas in Croatian it would be "radit ćemo in Serbian monopoly the "t" can be omitted and the verbs merged into "radićemo". Mood edit book cover of Snježana kordić s Grammar book serbo-Croatian 1st pub. 2006 ( Contents ) Besides the indicative, serbo-Croatian uses the imperative, conditional, and the optative. Imperative forms vary according to the type of the verb, and is formed by adding the appropriate morpheme to a verbal stem. The conditional I (present) uses the aorist of biti plus perfect participle, while conditional ii (past) consists of the perfect participle of biti, the aorist of the same verb, and the perfect participle of the main verb. Some grammars classify future ii as a conditional tense, or even a mood of its own. Optative is in its form single identical to the perfect participle.

Slavic verbs in general are characterized by a relatively low number of stems, from which a wide first variety of meanings is achieved by prefixation. Tense edit The indicative has seven tenses: present, past, futures i and ii, pluperfect, aorist and imperfect. The latter two are not used often in daily speech (more often in Bosnia and Herzegovina than in Croatia and Serbia especially the imperfect. The present, aorist, and imperfect are inflected, the other tenses are periphrastic : Past uses the present of biti to be plus the perfect participle,. Radio sam (or sam radio, order depending on the sentence). Future i uses the (reduced) present of htjeti will" or "to want plus the infinitive,. Ćemo kuhati (or kuhat ćemo, in which case the -i of the infinitive marker -ti is elided).

grammar summary pdf

English grammar summary pdf, free download for Windows

Dobar becomes, for example, dobri, dobra, dobrog, dobru, dobrim, dobrom, dobre, and dobrih, according to case and number. Numerals edit This section is empty. You can help by adding. (January 2011) Verbs edit like those of other Slavic languages, serbo-Croatian verbs have a property of aspect : the perfective and the imperfective. Perfective indicates an action that is completed or sudden, while the imperfective denotes continuous, repeated, or habitual action. Aspect compensates for a relative lack of tenses compared with. Germanic or Romance languages: the verb already contains the information whether the action is completed or lasting, so there is no general distinction between continuous and perfect tenses.

Singular plural masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter Nominative -i -a -o -i -e -a genitive -og -e -og -ih -ih -ih Dative/Locative! om -oj -om -im -im -im Accusative -i/-og* -u -o -e -e -a vocative -i -a -o -i -e -a instrumental -im -om -im -im -im -im * same as nominative if a word is marking inanimate object; same as genitive if a word. Singular Plural Note: animate objects (people and animals) are treated differently in the singular masculine accusative. In this case, it is the same as singular masculine genitive. It is considered accusative even though it looks like the genitive. Example: Vidim velikog psa i see a big dog. Note: most adjectives ending in consonant-'a'-consonant (for example: dobar, "good the 'a' disappears when any letter is added.

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grammar summary pdf

Summary of, grammar, pDF

It contains the rest of feminine nouns,. E., those that are not contained in the e-type nouns (a-stems). Singular plural Nominative - -i genitive -i -i dative/Locative -i -ima world Accusative - -i vocative -i -i instrumental -i/ju -ima some nouns appear only in the plural form and do not have a singular variant (see plurale tantum ). The gender of these nouns is either feminine (e.g. Hlače "trousers gaće "pants grudi "chest or neuter (e.g. Kola "car leđa "back usta "mouth.

3 Pronouns edit serbo-Croatian allows deletion of the subject pronoun (see pro-drop language ). 4 Example: Bojim. " i am afraid." možeš reći što god hoćeš. " you can say whatever you want." Personal pronouns Case 1st. Nominative ja ti on / ona / ono mi vi oni / one / ona genitive mene tebe resume njega / nje / njega nas vas njih Dative meni tebi njemu / njoj / njemu nama vama njima Accusative mene tebe njega / nju / njega. velik u kuć u (sing. Others differ: jedn im klik om with one click sing.

If a noun has at least two consonants before the final e, it has disappearing a in genitive plural. This is not the case if the noun ends with - šte, - šće, - žđe or -. Nouns representing living things do not have plural forms, but their plurality is marked with a collective noun formed with - ād ( téle,. Singularia tantum tlād,. Singularia tantum ) or by using a noun formed with - ići ( ple,. Singularia tantum plići,.

The noun dijéte "child" is singularia tantum and uses the collective noun djèca,. Singularia tantum, but plural with verbs, instead of a plural form. Pattern 6 - parisyllabic nouns without disappearing a case singular Plural N plj-e plj-a/pòlj-a g plj-a pôlj-ā d plj-u plj-ima a plj-e plj-a v plj-e plj-a l plj-u plj-ima i plj-em plj-ima pattern 7 - parisyllabic nouns with disappearing a case singular Plural N sûnc-e. The only neuter noun ending in - a is dba / dôba : Case singular Plural N dba dba g dba dôbā d dbu dbima a dba dba v dba dba l dbu dbima i dbom dbima e-type nouns edit This type reflects Proto-Slavic a-stems. It contains most of the feminine nouns, and a small number of masculines. Singular plural Nominative -a -e genitive -e -a dative/Locative -i -ama Accusative -u -e vocative -o/a -e instrumental -om -ama i-type nouns edit This type reflects Proto-Slavic i-stems, and is characterized by the zero ending in nominative singular and -i in genitive singular.

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Pattern 1 - business parisyllabic nouns without disappearing a case singular Plural n kòljen-o kòljen-a g kòljen-a kljēn-ā d kòljen-u kòljen-ima a kòljen-o kòljen-a v kòljen-o kòljen-a l kòljen-u kòljen-ima i kòljen-om kòljen-ima pattern 2 - parisyllabic nouns with disappearing a case singular Plural N jdr-o/jèdr-o. Pattern 4 - feminine plural Case Plural n č-i g òč-ijū d òč-ima a č-i v č-i l òč-ima i òč-ima pattern 4 - neuter plural Case Plural n k-a g ôk-ā d òč-ima a k-a v k-a l òč-ima i òč-ima nouns čdo "miracle. These plurals are used differently. The nominative plural of h o is u š èsa, and the nominative plural of t ijê lo is t je lèsa. Pattern 5 - nouns with - es - case Plural n čud-ès-a g čud-és-ā d čud-ès-ima a čud-ès-a v čud-ès-a l čud-ès-ima i čud-ès-ima neuter nouns ending in - e edit The final e can be a suffix, so the noun is parisyllabic, and. The noun is parisyllabic if it ends with - je (except jáje in singular - lje, - nje (except jnje - će, - đe, - ce (except pce and tùce - šte, - šće or - žđe. The nouns môre and tl are also parisyllabic.

grammar summary pdf

The choice of -o- and -e- endings in the nominative, vocative and instrumental singular, as well as the plural suffix -ov-/-ev-, is governed by the stem-final consonant: if it is a "soft" (chiefly palatal consonant c, č, ć, đ, j, lj, nj, š, ž,. Some loanwords, chiefly of French origin, preserve the ending vowel (-e, -i, -o, -u) as part of the stem; those ending in -i receive an additional epenthetic -j- suffix in oblique cases: kàfē kafèi 'café pànō panòi 'billboard kànū kanùi 'canoe tàksi taksiji 'taxi'. They are always of masculine gender; loanwords ending in -a are typically of the e-declension class (feminine neuter nouns are basically a closed class. Masculine nouns edit masculine nouns belonging to this declension class are those that are not hypocorisms, and do not end in -a, which undergo e-type declension. According to the nominative singular forms they are divided in two classes: nouns having immoral the zero ending -ø in nominative singular (twelve declensional patterns) nouns having the ending -o or -e in nominative singular (two declensional patterns) Pattern 1 - nouns without "disappearing a" Case. They generally comprise personal names, hypocorisms and certain foreign-language borrowings. Pattern 11 - nouns in -ē or -o case singular Plural N bìfē bifè-i g bifè-a bifé-ā d bifè-u bifè-ima a bìfē bifè-e v bfe-u bifè-i l bifè-u bifè-ima i bifè-om bifè-ima pattern 12 - nouns ending in -i case singular Plural Singular Plural. Neuter nouns ending in - o edit The final o is always a suffix. Nouns which have at least two consonants (except st and zd ) before the final o have disappearing a in genitive plural.

distinction between three genders (masculine. Nouns edit serbo-Croatian has three main declensional types, traditionally called a-type, e-type and i-type respectively, according to their genitive singular ending. A-type nouns edit This type reflects Proto-Slavic o-stems, and is characterized by the endings (-o (-e or zero (-Ø) in the nominative singular, and (-a) in genitive singular. It includes most of the masculine and all of the neuter nouns. The category of animacy is important for choosing of accusative singular of o-stems, and of personal pronouns. Animate nouns have the accusative case like the genitive, and inanimate nouns have the accusative case like the nominative. This is also important for adjectives and numerals that agree with masculine nouns in case. This type has two sets of case endings: one for masculine, and the other for neuter gender: Case singular Plural masculine neuter masculine neuter Nominative (N) -ø, -o, -e -o, -e, -ø -i, -ov-i, -ev-i -a genitive (G) -a -a -ā, -ōv-ā, -ēv-ā -ā dative. Most masculine monosyllabic and some bisyllabic words receive an additional suffix -ov- or -ev- throughout the plural ( bor borovi 'pine panj panjevi 'stump.

Often, such deviations will sound literary, poetical or archaic. Nouns have three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) that correspond, to a certain extent, with the word ending so most nouns with -a are feminine, -o and -e neuter, and the rest mostly masculine but with some feminine. The grammatical gender of a noun affects the morphology of other parts of speech (adjectives, pronouns, and verbs) attached. Nouns are declined into seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, locative, and instrumental. Verbs are divided into two broad classes according to their aspect, which can be either perfective (signifying a completed action) or imperfective (action is incomplete or repetitive). There are seven tenses, four of which (present, perfect, future i and II) are used in contemporary serbo-Croatian, and the other three (aorist, imperfect and pluperfect) used much golf less frequently. The pluperfect is generally limited to written language and some more educated speakers, and the aorist and imperfect are considered stylistically marked and rather archaic. However, some nonstandard dialects make considerable (and thus unremarked) use of those tenses.

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Serbo-Croatian is a, south Slavic language that has, like most other, slavic languages, an extensive system of inflection. This article describes exclusively the grammar of the. Shtokavian dialect, which is a part of the. South Slavic dialect continuum barbing 1 and the basis for the, bosnian, croatian, montenegrin, and, serbian standard variants of Serbo-Croatian. Pronouns, nouns, adjectives and some numerals decline (change the word ending to reflect case, the grammatical category and function) whereas verbs conjugate for person and tense. As in other Slavic languages, the basic word order is subjectverbobject (svo but the declensions show sentence structure and so word order is not as important as in more analytic languages, such as English or Chinese. Deviations from the standard svo order are stylistically marked and may be employed to convey a particular emphasis, mood or overall tone, according to the intentions of the speaker or writer.

Grammar summary pdf
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