Huntington's theories about civilizations are discussed below. 33 Complex systems edit Another group of theorists, making use of systems theory, looks at a civilization as a complex system,. E., a framework by which a group of objects can be analysed that work in concert to produce some result. Civilizations can be seen as networks of cities that emerge from pre-urban cultures and are defined by the economic, political, military, diplomatic, social and cultural interactions among them. Any organization is a complex social system and a civilization is a large organization. Systems theory helps guard against superficial but misleading analogies in the study and description of civilizations. Systems theorists look at many types of relations between cities, including economic relations, cultural exchanges and political/diplomatic/military relations. These spheres often occur on different scales.
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Many historians have focused on these broad cultural spheres and have treated civilizations as discrete units. Early twentieth-century philosopher Oswald Spengler, 32 uses the german word Kultur, "culture for what many call a resume "civilization". Spengler believed a civilization's coherence is based on a single primary cultural symbol. Cultures experience cycles of birth, life, decline and death, often supplanted by a potent new culture, formed around a compelling new cultural symbol. Spengler states civilization is the beginning of the decline of a culture as "the most external and artificial states of which a species of developed humanity is capable". 32 This "unified culture" concept of civilization also influenced the theories of historian Arnold. Toynbee in the mid-twentieth century. Toynbee explored civilization processes in his multi-volume a study of History, which traced the rise and, in most cases, the decline of 21 civilizations and five "arrested civilizations". Civilizations generally declined and fell, fairytale according to toynbee, because of the failure of a "creative minority through moral or religious decline, to meet some important challenge, rather than mere economic or environmental causes. Huntington defines civilization as "the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species".
Traditionally, polities that managed to achieve notable military, ideological and economic power defined themselves as "civilized" as opposed to other societies or literature human groupings outside their sphere of influence—calling the latter barbarians, savages, and primitives. In a modern-day context, "civilized people" have been contrasted with indigenous people or tribal societies. Cultural identity edit further information: Cultural area "civilization" can also refer to the culture of a complex society, not just the society itself. Every society, civilization or not, has a specific set of ideas and customs, and a certain set of manufactures and arts that make it unique. Civilizations tend to develop intricate cultures, including a state -based decision making apparatus, a literature, professional art, architecture, organized religion and complex customs of education, coercion and control associated with maintaining the elite. The intricate culture associated with civilization has a tendency to spread to and influence other cultures, sometimes assimilating them into the civilization (a classic example being Chinese civilization and its influence on nearby civilizations such as Korea, japan and vietnam ). Many civilizations are actually large cultural spheres containing many nations and regions. The civilization in which someone lives is that person's broadest cultural identity.
"Primitive" implies in some way that a culture is "first" (Latin primus that it has not changed since the dawn of humanity, though this has been demonstrated not to be true. Specifically, as all of today's cultures are contemporaries, today's so-called primitive cultures are in no way antecedent to those we consider civilized. Anthropologists today use the term " non-literate " to describe these peoples. Civilization has been spread by colonization, invasion, religious conversion, the extension of bureaucratic control and trade, and by introducing agriculture and writing to non-literate peoples. Some non-civilized people may willingly adapt to civilized behaviour. But civilization is also spread by the technical, material and social dominance that civilization engenders. Assessments of what level of civilization a polity has reached are based on comparisons of the relative importance of agricultural as opposed to trade or manufacturing capacities, the territorial extensions of its power, the complexity of its division of labour, and the carrying capacity. Secondary elements include a developed transportation system, writing, standardized measurement, currency, contractual and tort -based legal systems, art, architecture, mathematics, scientific understanding, metallurgy, political structures and organized religion.
Writing, developed first by people in Sumer, is considered a hallmark of civilization and "appears to accompany the rise of complex administrative bureaucracies or the conquest state". 31 Traders and bureaucrats relied on writing to keep accurate records. Like money, writing was necessitated by the size of the population of a city and the complexity of its commerce among people who are not all personally acquainted with each other. However, writing is not always necessary for civilization, as shown the Inca civilization of the Andes, which did not use writing at all except from a complex recording system consisting of cords and nodes instead: the "Quipus whose still functioned as a civilized society. Aided by their division of labour and central government planning, civilizations have developed many other diverse cultural traits. These include organized religion, development in the arts, and countless new advances in science and technology. Through history, successful civilizations have spread, taking over more and more territory, and assimilating more and more previously-uncivilized people. Nevertheless, some tribes or people remain uncivilized even to this day. These cultures are called by some " primitive a term that is regarded by others as pejorative.
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30 Economically, civilizations display more complex patterns of ownership and exchange than less organized societies. Living in one place allows people to accumulate more personal possessions than nomadic people. Some people also acquire book landed property, or private ownership of the land. Because a percentage of people in civilizations do not grow their own food, they must trade their goods and services for food in a market system, or receive food through the levy of tribute, redistributive taxation, tariffs or tithes from the food producing segment. Early human cultures functioned through a gift economy supplemented by limited barter systems. By the early Iron Age, contemporary civilizations developed money as a medium of exchange for increasingly complex transactions.
In a village, the potter makes a pot for the brewer and the brewer compensates the potter by giving him a certain amount of beer. In a city, the potter may need a new roof, the roofer may need new shoes, the cobbler may need new horseshoes, the blacksmith may need a new coat and the tanner may need a new pot. These people may not be personally acquainted with one another and their needs may not occur all at the same time. A monetary system is a way of organizing these obligations to ensure that they are fulfilled. From the days of the earliest monetarized civilizations, monopolistic controls of monetary systems have benefited the social and political elites.
A surplus of food permits some people to do things besides produce food for a living: early civilizations included soldiers, artisans, priests and priestesses, and other people with specialized careers. A surplus of food results in a division of labour and a more diverse range of human activity, a defining trait of civilizations. However, in some places hunter-gatherers have had access to food surpluses, such as among some of the indigenous peoples of the pacific Northwest and perhaps during the mesolithic Natufian culture. It is possible that food surpluses and relatively large scale social organization and division of labour predates plant and animal domestication. 24 civilizations have distinctly different settlement patterns from other societies. The word "civilization" is sometimes simply defined as living in cities.
25 Non-farmers tend to gather in cities to work and to trade. Compared with other societies, civilizations have a more complex political structure, namely the state. 26 State societies are more stratified 27 than other societies; there is a greater difference among the social classes. The ruling class, normally concentrated in the cities, has control over much of the surplus and exercises its will through the actions of a government or bureaucracy. Morton Fried, a conflict theorist and Elman Service, an integration theorist, have classified human cultures based on political systems and social inequality. This system of classification contains four categories 28 Hunter-gatherer bands, which are generally egalitarian. 29 Horticultural / pastoral societies in which there are generally two inherited social classes; chief and commoner. Highly stratified structures, or chiefdoms, with several inherited social classes: king, noble, freemen, serf and slave. Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.
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18 Characteristics edit social scientists such. Gordon Childe have named a number of traits that distinguish a civilization from other kinds of society. 19 civilizations have been distinguished by their means of subsistence, types of livelihood, settlement patterns, forms of government, social stratification, economic systems, literacy and other cultural traits. Andrew nikiforuk argues that "civilizations relied on shackled human muscle. It took the energy long of slaves to plant crops, clothe emperors, and build cities" and considers slavery to be a common feature of pre-modern civilizations. 20 All civilizations have depended on agriculture for subsistence, with the possible exception of some early civilizations in Peru which may have depended upon maritime resources. 21 22 Grain farms can result in accumulated storage and a surplus of food, particularly when people use intensive agricultural techniques such as artificial fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation. It is possible but more difficult to accumulate horticultural production, and so civilizations based on horticultural gardening have been very rare. 23 Grain surpluses have been especially important because grain can be stored for a long time.
Already in the 18th century, civilization was not always seen as an improvement. One historically important distinction between culture and civilization is from the writings of rousseau, particularly his work about education, Emile. Here, civilization, being more rational and socially driven, is not fully in accord with human nature, and "human wholeness is achievable only through the recovery of or approximation to an original prediscursive or prerational natural unity" (see noble savage ). From this, a new approach was developed, especially in Germany, first by johann Gottfried Herder, and later by philosophers such as kierkegaard and nietzsche. This sees cultures as natural organisms, not defined by "conscious, rational, deliberative acts but a kind of pre-rational "folk spirit". Civilization, in contrast, lamb though more rational and more successful in material progress, is unnatural and leads to "vices of social life" such as guile, hypocrisy, envy and avarice. 15 In World War ii, leo strauss, having fled Germany, argued in New York that this opinion of civilization was behind nazism and German militarism and nihilism.
all progress made by man in every sphere of action and from every point of view in so far as the progress helps towards the spiritual. Page needed Adjectives like "civility" developed in the mid-16th century. The abstract noun "civilization meaning "civilized condition came in the 1760s, again from French. The first known use in French is in 1757, by victor Riqueti, marquis de mirabeau, and the first use in English is attributed to Adam Ferguson, who in his 1767 Essay on the history of civil Society wrote, "Not only the individual advances from infancy. 14 The word was therefore opposed to barbarism or rudeness, in the active pursuit of progress characteristic of the Age of Enlightenment. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, during the French revolution, "civilization" was used in the singular, never in the plural, and meant the progress of humanity as a whole. This is still the case in French. 15 The use of "civilizations" as a countable noun was in occasional use in the 19th century, 16 but has become much more common in the later 20th century, sometimes just meaning culture (itself in origin an uncountable noun, made countable in the context. 17 Only in this generalized sense does it become possible to speak of a "medieval civilization which in Elias's sense would have been an oxymoron.
As an uncountable noun, "civilization" also refers to the process of a society developing into a centralized, urbanized, stratified structure. Civilizations are organized in densely populated settlements divided into hierarchical social classes with a ruling elite and subordinate urban and rural populations, which engage in intensive agriculture, mining, small-scale manufacture and trade. Civilization concentrates power, extending human control over the rest of nature, including over other human beings. 11 civilization, as its etymology (below) suggests, is a concept originally linked to towns and cities. The earliest emergence of civilizations is generally associated margaret with the final stages of the neolithic revolution, culminating in the relatively rapid process of urban revolution and state formation, a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite. Contents History of the concept edit The English word "civilization" comes from the 16th-century French civilisé civilized from Latin civilis civil related to civis citizen and civitas city. 12 The fundamental treatise is Norbert Elias 's The civilizing Process (1939 which traces social mores from medieval courtly society to the early modern period.
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For the album by Stellastarr, see. For other uses, see, civilization (disambiguation). Ancient Egypt is a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization. A civilization or civilisation (see, english spelling differences ) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment. Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics, including centralization, the domestication of both humans and other organisms, specialization of labour, culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming and expansionism. Historically, civilization has often been understood as a larger and "more advanced" culture, in contrast to smaller, supposedly primitive cultures. 1 3 4 9 Similarly, some scholars have described civilization as being necessarily multicultural. 10 In this broad sense, a civilization contrasts with non-centralized tribal societies, gps including the cultures of nomadic pastoralists, neolithic societies or hunter-gatherers, but it also contrasts with the cultures found within civilizations themselves.