By 1966, reportedly six synagogues remained; 21 some were confiscated by the soviet authorities. 39 While mountain Jews observed the rituals of circumcision, marriage and burial, as well as Jewish holidays, 40 other precepts of Jewish faith were observed less carefully. 21 The community's ethnic identity remained unshaken despite the soviet efforts. 41 Cases of intermarriage with Muslims in azerbaijan or Dagestan were rare as both groups practice endogamy. 42 43 After the fall of the soviet Union, mountain Jews experienced a significant religious revival, with increasing religious observance by members of the younger generation. 44 Educational institutions, language, literature edit Class held at a primary mountain Jewish school in Quba. Mountain Jews speak judeo-tat, also called Juhuri, a form of Persian, it belongs to the southwestern group of the Iranian division of the Indo-european languages.
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20 With the brutal destruction of Aba-sava (roughly 1800 however, the religious center of mountain Jews moved to derbent. Prominent rabbis english of mountain Jews in the nineteenth century included: Rabbi gershom son of rabbi reuven of Qırmızı qəsəbə azerbaijan, Shalom ben Melek of Temir-Khan-Shura (modern buynaksk chief Rabbi of Dagestan Jacob ben Isaac, and Rabbi hizkiyahu ben Avraam of Nalchik, whose son Rabbi nahamiil. In the early decades of the soviet Union, the government took steps to suppress religion. Thus, In the 1930s, the soviet Union closed synagogues belonging to mountain Jews. Same procedures were implemented on other ethnicities and religions. Soviet authorities propagated the myth that mountain Jews were not part of the world Jewish people at all, but rather members of Tat community that settled in the region. 35 soviet anti-zionism rhetoric was intensified during Khrushchev 's rule. Some of the synagogues were later reopened in the 40's. The closing of the synagogues in the 30's was part of communist ideology, which resisted religion of any kind. 9 At the beginning of the 1950s, there were synagogues in all major mountain Jewish communities.
A dayan was a chief rabbi of a town, presiding over beit dins and representing the highest religious authority for the town and nearby smaller settlements. 36 dayans were elected democratically lined by community leaders. The religious survival of the community was not without difficulties. In the prosperous days of Jewish Valley (roughly the spiritual center of mountain Jews centered on the settlement of Aba-sava. 20 Many works of religious significance were written in Aba-sava. Here, elisha ben Schmuel ha-katan wrote several of his piyyuts. 20 Theologist Gerhson Lala ben Moshke nakdi, who lived in Aba-sava in 18th century, wrote a commentary to mishneh Torah of maimonides. Rabbi mattathia ben Shmuel ha-kohen wrote his kabbalistic essay kol Hamevaser in Aba-sava.
A sizable number of mountain Jewish worked in the entertainment industry in Dagestan. 31 The republic's dancing ensemble "Lezginka" was led by tankho Israilov, a mountain Jew, for twenty one years (195879). 32 33 Religion edit mountain Jews proposal resting after a day of work. Mountain Jews are considered, by some, to be of Sephardic lineage; this however is a misnomer as they are neither Sephardim (from the Iberian Peninsula) nor Ashkenazim (from Germany and Eastern-Europe) but rather come directly by way of Persia. Mountain Jews tenaciously held to their religion throughout the centuries, developing their own unique traditions and religious practices. 34 mountain Jewish traditions are infused with teachings of Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism. 35 mountain Jews have traditionally maintained a two-tiered rabbinate, distinguishing between a rabbi and a "dayan." A "rabbi" was a title given to religious leaders performing the functions of liturgical preachers ( maggids ) and cantors ( hazzans ) in synagogues nimaz teachers in Jewish.
Tanning was their third most important economic activity after farming and gardening. At the end of the 19th century, 6 of Jews were engaged in this trade. Handicrafts and commerce were mostly practiced by jews in towns. The soviet authorities bound the mountain Jews to collective farms, but allowed them to continue their traditional cultivation of grapes, tobacco, and vegetables; and making wine. In practical terms, the jews are no longer isolated from other ethnic groups. With increasing urbanization and sovietization in progress, by the 1930s, a layer of intelligentsia began to form. By the late 1960s, academic professionals, such as pharmacists, medical doctors, and engineers, were quite common among the community. Mountain Jews worked in more professional positions than did georgian Jews, though less than the soviet Ashkenazi community, who were based in larger cities of Russia.
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26 given the marked changes in the 1990s following the dissolution of the soviet Union and rise of nationalism in the region, many mountain Jews permanently left their hometowns in the caucasus and relocated to moscow or abroad. 27 During the first Chechen War, many jews left due to the russian invasion and indiscriminate bombardment of civilian population by the russian military. 28 Despite historically close relations between Jews and Chechens, many also suffered high rate of kidnappings and violence at the hands of armed ethnic Chechen gangs who ransomed their freedom to "Israel and the international Jewish community". 26 Many mountain Jews emigrated to Israel or the United States. 29 30 Qırmızı qəsəbə in azerbaijan remains the biggest settlement of mountain Jews in the world, with the current population over 3,000. Mountain Jewish woman, painted by max Tilke in the early 20th century.
Economy edit While elsewhere in the russian Empire, jews were prohibited from owning land (excluding the jews of Siberia and Central Asia at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the mountain Jews owned land and were farmers and gardeners. Their oldest occupation was rice -growing, but they also raised silkworms and cultivated tobacco. The jewish vineyards were especially notable. The jews and their Christian Armenian neighbors were the main producers of wine, as writing Muslims were prohibited by their religion from producing or consuming alcohol. Judaism, in turn, limited some types of meat consumption. Unlike their neighbors, the jews raised few domestic animals. At the same time, they were renowned tanners.
Soviet times, holocaust and modern history edit synagogue in Gilaki quarter, qırmızı qəsəbə (purely jewish town which was reopened in 1941 after initially being closed by bolsheviks. By 1926, more than 85 of mountain Jews in Dagestan were already classed as urban. Mountain Jews were mainly concentrated in the cities of makhachkala, buynaksk, derbent, nalchik and Grozny in North caucausus; and Quba and baku in azerbaijan. 21 citation needed In the second World War, some mountain Jews settlements in Crimea and parts of their area in Kabardino-balkaria were occupied by the german Wehrmacht at the end of 1942. During this period, they killed several hundreds of mountain Jews until the germans retreated early 1943. On September 20, 1942, germans killed 420 mountain Jews near the village of Bogdanovka.
Some mountain Jews were murdered during the holocaust. Many mountain Jews survived, however, because german troops did not reach their areas; in addition, german authorities considered this group to be "religious" but not "racial" Jews. 22 The soviet Army's advances in the area brought the nalchik community under its protection. 23 The mountain Jewish community of Nalchik was the largest mountain Jewish community occupied by nazis, 23 and the vast majority of the population has survived. With the help of their Kabardian neighbors, mountain Jews of Nalchik convinced ss squads that they were tats, the native local people, and not related to the larger Jewish community. 23 Although the nazis watched the village carefully, rabbi nachamil ben hizkiyahu hid Sefer Torahs by burying them in a fake burial ceremony. 24 The city was liberated a few months later. In 1944, the nkvd deported the entire Chechen populace that surrounded the mountain Jews in Chechnya, and moved other ethnic groups into their homes; mountain Jews mostly refused to take the homes of deported Chechens 25 while there are some reports of deported Chechens entrusting.
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20 The valley prospered until the end of the 18th century, when its settlements were brutally destroyed in the war between Sheikh-Ali-Khan, who swore in loyalty lined to russian Empire, and Surkhai-khan, the ruler of Kumukh. Citation needed many mountain Jews were slaughtered, with survivors escaping to derbent where they salon received the protection of Fatali Khan, the ruler of Quba Khanate. In the 18th19th century, the jews resettled from the highland to the coastal lowlands but carried the name "Mountain Jews" with them. In the villages ( aouls the mountain Jews had settled in separate sections. In the lowland towns they also lived in concentrated neighborhoods, but their dwellings did not differ from those of their neighbors. Mountain Jews retained the dress of the highlanders. They have continued to follow Jewish dietary laws and affirm their faith in family life.
18 mountain Jews maintained a strong military tradition. For this reason, some historians 19 believe they may be descended from Jewish military colonists, settled by parthian and Sassanid rulers in the caucasus as frontier guards against nomadic incursions from the pontic steppe. A 2002 study by geneticist Dror Rosengarten found that the paternal haplotypes of mountain Jews "were shared with other Jewish communities and were consistent with a mediterranean origin." 19 In addition, y-dna testing of mountain Jews has shown they have y-dna haplotypes related to those. 19 The semitic origin of mountain Jews is also evident in their culture and language. 19 "The jewish Valley" edit by the early 17th century, mountain Jews formed many small settlements throughout mountain valleys of Dagestan. 20 One valley, located 10 km south of Derbent, close to the shore of the caspian sea, was predominantly populated by mountain Jews. Their Muslim neighbors called this area "Jewish Valley." The jewish Valley grew to be a semi-independent Jewish state, with its spiritual and political center located in its largest settlement of Aba-sava (1630-1800).
about priests who had been brought from there. According to the bible, prophet Ezra, sent delegates to casiphia (located in azerbaijan no citation asking for priests to serve in the temple of God. 14 15 mountain Jews have an oral tradition, passed down generation after generation, that they are descended from the ten Lost Tribes which were exiled by the king of Assyria (Ashur who ruled over northern Iraq from Mosul (across the tigris river from the ancient. The reference, most likely is to Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria who is mentioned in ii kings 18:9-12. According to local Jewish tradition, some 19,000 Jews departed Jerusalem (used here as a generic term for the land of Israel) and passed through Syria, babylonia, and Persia and then, heading north, entered into media. In Chechnya, mountain Jews partially assimilated into Chechen society by forming a jewish teip, the Zhugtii 16 while three other teips, the Shuonoi, ziloi and Chartoi have also been theorized to have jewish relations. 17 In Chechen society, ethnic minorities residing in areas demographically dominated by Chechens have the option of forming a teip in order to properly participate in the developments of Chechen society such as making alliances and gaining representation in the mekhk Khell, a supreme ethnonational. 18 teips of minority-origin have also been made by ethnic Poles, germans, georgians, kumyks, russians, kalmyks, circassians, Andis, avars, dargins, laks, persians, Arabs, ukrainians and Nogais, 16 17 with the german teip having been formed as recently as the 1940s when Germans in Siberian exile.
The mountain Jews survived numerous historical vicissitudes by settling in extremely remote and mountainous areas. They were known to be accomplished warriors and horseback riders. Citation needed The main mountain Jew the settlement in azerbaijan is Qırmızı qəsəbə, also called Jerusalem of the caucasus. Krasnaya sloboda "Red Village." 11 mountain Jews are distinct from georgian Jews of the caucasus mountains. The two groups are culturally and ethnically different, speaking different languages and having many differences in customs and culture. 12 Contents History edit early history edit synagogue at Qırmızı qəsəbə (purely jewish town azerbaijan The mountain Jews, or Jews of the caucasus, have inhabited the caucasus since the fifth century. Being the descendants of the persian Jews of Iran, their migration from Persia proper to the caucasus took place in the sasanian era (224-651).
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Mountain Jews or, caucasus Jews also known as, juhuro, juvuro, juhuri, juwuri, juhurim, kavkazi jews or, gorsky jews azerbaijani : dağ yəhudiləri, hebrew : yehudey kavkaz. Gorskie yevrey 5 ) are, jews of the eastern and northern, caucasus, mainly. Azerbaijan, chechnya, dagestan and, ingushetia. They are the descendants of, persian Jews from. 6 7, the mountain Jews community became established. Ancient Persia, from the 5th century ad onwards; their language, called Judeo-tat, is an ancient southwest Iranian language business which integrates many elements of Ancient Hebrew. 8 It is believed that they had reached Persia from Ancient Israel as early as the 8th century. They continued to migrate east, settling in mountainous areas of the caucasus.