Term in Context Example sentence Instead of reading the article in the magazine, i obtained the e-text version and had my laptop read it aloud to me while i was on the train. Top of Page Elementary and Secondary Education Act (esea) The principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States. From, the law was known as the no child Left Behind Act but is again referred to as esea in current policy discussions. Also see: Accountability ; no child Left Behind ; Standards-based assessment source: term in Context Top of Page Embedded assessment A method for measuring knowledge and ability where evaluations are part of the learning activity rather than happening after the fact. Term in Context Example sentence The teacher found that one advantage of using technology was embedded assessment ; it allowed her to see student progress within the learning activity rather than just after instruction. Top of Page English Language learners (ELLs) A term used to describe students who are in the process of acquiring English language skills and knowledge; some schools refer to these students using the term limited-English-proficient (LEP).
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Source: Adapted from: Tomlinson,. How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. (2nd.) Alexandria, va: ascd. Term in Context Example sentences Differentiated Instruction and udl share the same goal: to maximize learning opportunities for all students. The distinction between the two frameworks lies within the goal; di focuses on differentiating with a focus at the student level, whereas udl focuses on designing flexible curricula with the needs of the broadest range of students in mind from the start. Top of Page direct instruction An instructional approach that emphasizes the use of carefully sequenced steps (i.e., scripted lectures or demonstrations) to teach specific academic content; the approach is contrasted with more open-ended approaches, such as hands-on learning or inquiry-based learning. Source: term in Context Example sentence The teacher used a carefully scripted lesson to provide direct instruction on phonics. Top of Page diversity differences between students in ability/disability, culture, language, race, background, etc. Term in Context Example sentence udl gives us a framework for addressing the diversity of the students in our classrooms. Top of Page e-text (or digital text) A book, article, or other published material that can be retrieved by and read deluxe via an electronic device.
Top of Page curriculum The overall plan for instruction, and the materials, methods, and assessments to carry out the plan; comprised of four main components:. Goals and milestones for instruction. Media and materials to be used by students. Specific instructional methods. Means of assessment to measure student progress Also see: Method ; Pedagogy term in Context Example sentence The udl framework can be applied to all aspects of the curriculum in order to decrease barriers and increase opportunities for learning. Top of Page decode The ability to sound out letters and words. Term in Context Example sentence since the student was not able to decode the text, he was not able to access the meaning or to fully participate in the class discussion. Top of Page differentiated Instruction (DI) An approach to teaching that includes various approaches owl to content, process, and product in order to meet the needs of student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
Top of Page real construct relevant Refers to the factors (e.g. Mode of presentation or response) that are relevant (related) to the construct that the test is intended to measure. Also see: Construct irrelevant source: Adopted from: Madaus,., russell,. The paradoxes of high stakes testing: How they affect students, their parents, teachers, principals, schools and society. Information Age publishing, Inc.: Charlotte,. Term in Context Example sentences The teacher wanted to adapt an assessment item to make it more accessible for his summary student. However, he realized that identifying the symbols for a math calculation problem is a construct relevant change to the assessment item.
Top of Page concept map a visual display that supports comprehension by depicting the relationships between concepts within a learning task. Also see: Graphic organizer ; Semantic map Term in Context Example sentence In order to support students' understanding of the causes of the civil War, the teacher asked students to create a concept map that depicted the relationship between the various events. Top of Page construct irrelevant The extent to which test scores are influenced by factors (e.g., mode of presentation or response) that are irrelevant (not related) to the construct that the test is intended to measure. Also see: Construct relevant source: Adapted from: American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, national council on measurement in Education. Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, dc: American Educational Research Association,. Term in Context Example sentence Changing the font size and increasing the sizing of images helped the student to see the math item more clearly; this change was construct irrelevant to the math skills being assessed by the item.
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Effects of book chunked reading among learning disabled students: An experimental comparison of computer and traditional chunked passages. Journal of Educational Technology systems, 17 (2 115-21. Term in Context Example sentence Instead of asking the student to complete the entire chapter in one night, the teacher and the student worked together to chunk the assignment into more manageable pieces. Top of Page coach live or animated support provided by an agent to help the performance of a task; aimed at improving the performance of the learner. Also see: Mentors ; Models ; Scaffold source: Adapted from: m Term in Context Example sentence a coach embedded into a learning environment designed to teach students about states of matter asked students, "What is the process of sublimation?" Top of Page cognitive having.
Term in Context Example sentences The teacher used several techniques to develop students' cognitive skills during the lesson. She asked students to make predictions, ask clarifying questions, and summarize information. Top of Page collaborative learning An umbrella term for the variety of approaches and models in education that involve the shared intellectual efforts by students working in small groups to accomplish a goal or complete a task. Source: term in Context Example sentences As a final project for the unit on The revolutionary war, the teacher wanted to focus on collaborative learning. The class was responsible for writing and producing a fifteen minute play that would capture a critical event that took place during the war.
Also see: Formative assessment ; Summative assessment ; Standards-based assessment ; Embedded assessment ; Progress monitoring ; Rubric Term in Context Example sentence Assessments can provide teachers with data regarding students' progress and can also inform teachers regarding the effectiveness of their instructional techniques. Top of Page Assistive technology (AT) devices or services that are used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability. Also see: Supports source: Adapted from: ml idea 2004. 300.5, 300.6 Term in Context Example sentence text-to-speech (TtS) software is an assistive technology that reads any digital text aloud. Top of Page automaticity a general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness; skills become automatic after extended periods of training with practice and good instruction. Also see: Transfer source: Adapted from: term in Context Example sentence The student's automaticity in reading allows her to have a deeper understanding of complex essays since her brain does not have to spend a lot of energy in decoding the text.
Top of Page avatar A graphical image that represents a person, as on the Internet. Source: m/browse/avatar Term in Context Example sentence The students created avatars to look like themselves: they had choices in hair, skin, eye color, and even in the types of clothing. Top of Page barrier Anything that restrains or obstructs progress in fulfilling the task at hand. Source: Adapted from: m/browse/barriers Term in Context Example sentences The student is unable to decode the text of a short story he is assigned for his English class. Even though he understands the language and story structure, he is unable to read for understanding since decoding is a barrier to his learning. Top of Page cast (Center for Applied Special Technology) A nonprofit research and development organization that works to expand learning opportunities for all individuals, especially those with disabilities, through Universal Design for learning. Also see: Universal Design for learning (UDL) Term in Context Top of Page Chunking A procedure of breaking up learning materials into manageable sections (e,g., grouping of words in sentences into short meaningful phrases). Source: Adapted from: Casteel,.
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Also see: Modeling ; Mentoring ; coaching statement Term in Context Example sentence When teaching how to draw, the art teacher used an apprenticeship model, giving novice students hands-on experience and the opportunity to learn from more experienced peers. Top of Page Appropriate level of challenge learners make progress when the task they put their minds to is neither overwhelmingly difficult nor boringly easy. Also see: Zone of Proximal development (ZPD) ; Scaffold Term in Context Example sentences The student found that lois Lowry's The giver was written at an appropriate level of challenge. She was able to comprehend the dialog and storyline, and she was challenged by a few vocabulary terms that she needed to look up in the dictionary. Top of Page Assessment Assessment is described as the process of gathering information about a learners performance using a variety of methods and materials in order to determine learners knowledge, skills, and motivation for the purpose of making informed educational decisions. Within the udl framework, the goal is to improve first the accuracy and timeliness of assessments, and to ensure that they are comprehensive and articulate enough to guide instruction for all learners. This is achieved in part by keen focus on the goal, as distinct from the means, enabling the provision of supports and scaffolds for construct irrelevant items. By broadening means to accommodate learner variability, udl assessments reduce or remove barriers to accurate measurement of learner knowledge, skills, and engagement.
Also see: Standards-based assessment ; no child Left Behind (nclb) Term in Context Example sentence As part of the state's accountability system, all students must take a state-wide English Language Arts and Mathematics assessment. Top of Page Affect The experience of feeling or emotion. Source: m/browse/affect Term in Context Example sentence The teacher was concerned because he noticed a change in the student's affect ; usually she was energetic and lively, and today she appeared disinterested and preoccupied. Top of Page Affective networks Networks in the brain that enable us to engage with lamb learning; networks specialized to evaluate patterns and impact emotional significance to them. Also see: Strategic networks ; Recognition networks ; Multiple means of action and expression ; Multiple means of representation ; Multiple means of engagement Term in Context Example sentence Preferences for movies, motivation to get up early and go to the gym, and nervous feelings. Top of Page Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Federal law that protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in the operations of public businesses and governments. Source: term in Context Web Resource Information and Technical Assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act:. Gov/ Top of Page Apprenticeship Refers to a relationship between a novice and an expert in which the expert supports the novice by providing ample opportunities to practice; ongoing, immediate, and relevant feedback; and opportunities to demonstrate skill.
Web Resource, national Center on Accessible Instructional Materials:. Top of Page, accommodation to instruction, refers to a change in instruction that does not result in a change in the standards or instructional goals for a student. Also see: Modification; Assistive technology, a change in instruction that does not result in a change in the standards or instructional goals for a student. Also see: Modification ; Assistive technology source: Adapted from: Ysseldyke,., Thurlow,., seyfarth,., bielinski,., moody,., haigh,. Nceo maryland/Kentucky report. National Center on Educational Outcomes. Term in Context Example sentence The student will need to use her assistive technology in math class to manipulate objects using a touch screen as an accommodation to instruction. Top of Page Accountability The idea or belief that schools and teachers must take responsibility for measurable student learning.
This post accompanies our updated "What teachers Should Know" resource that illustrates basic principles all educators can use to help their English learners progress in academics. A, b c, d e, f g, h i, l m, m(cont'd). N o, p r, s t, u accessibility, in the context of technology, accessibility most commonly refers to providing access for all people to web environments, including people with disabilities. Designing sites for the way that screen readers, text browsers, and other adaptive technologies interact with the web; choosing contrasting colors for readability; and providing alternative text tags for graphics are examples of making type web sites more accessible. Also see: Universal Design for learning (UDL) ; Universal Design (ud term in Context. Example sentence, the national Center on Universal Design for learning website was designed to be compatible with screen readers in order to increase its accessibility. Top of Page, accessible Instructional Materials (aim specialized formats of curricular content that can be used by and with learners who have print disablilities and include: braille, audio, large print, and electronic text.
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Skip to main content, for teachers, resources for English learner teachers. Whether you are new to teaching English learners or have years of experience, we have something for you. This page collects the best of the wisdom and classroom-ready resources we offer from our deep experience working with schools and districts in the northwest and beyond. Follow us on social media, and feel free to post our resources on Pinterest! Northwest Matters Blog, what Can remote District leaders do to support teachers of English learners? By angela sandino june 28, 2018. All students need good instruction. When it comes to providing good instruction to English learners, additional instructional supports are needed. Angela sandino writes about strategies that school leaders can follow to create optimal conditions for their teachers with English learners in their classrooms.