Durham county ranks first in human development, but only ranks eighth in income (23,156.00 second in health, and ninth in high school completion. . Mecklenburg county, containing the city of Charlotte, ranks second in human development, though it ranks first in income (27,352.00 ninth in health, and fifth in education. . Yancy county ranks first in health, but sixty-fifth in income (16,335.00 and sixty-second in education, and its overall human development rank is twelfth. . wake county ranks first in education, second in income (27,004.00 eighty-fifth in health, and third overall. North carolina human development indices nc county per capita income (1999) Income rank Physicians per 10,000 health Rank high school completion Education Rank nc hdi hdi rank alamance 19,318.104.22.168 31 alexander 18,507.3.70.23. Hyde county ranks last in income (13,164.00 seventy-seventh in health, and eighty-third in education, ranking ninety-second in overall human development. . Camden county ranks last in health, but thirty-first in income, thirteenth in education, and ranks thirty-fifth overall. . Northampton county ranks last in education, ranking seventy-eighth in income (15,413.00 ninety-second in health, and ninety-ninth overall. .
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Education The undp normally measures education with the essay adult literacy rate. . This is not generally available for all counties within a state, but several states have collected this data annually, and North Carolina collects it less frequently. The most recent literacy study was published by siedow (1997 which provided estimated literacy rates for 97 counties. . Three north Carolina counties, camden, hyde, and Tyrrell, had populations too small to estimate literacy meaningfully, so for these counties hdis could have been calculated based on income and health alone. . The 2000 census provides the percentage essay of the population 25 or older who have completed high school or the equivalent. . This education measure was used because it is more current and equally meaningful. North Carolina human development Indices North Carolina hdis are presented in table. . Underlying data for each county are given in columns two (per capita income four (physicians per 10,000 population and six (high school completion rate). . These data are used to compute deprivation ratios for the three development dimensions of income, health, and education, which are combined in the hdi given in column eight. . Each county is ranked according to income, health, and education, and an overall rank based on the hdi is given in column nine.
Health The standard measure of health is life expectancy, which is available for individual states, but not generally for for. The undp uses an alternative measure when life expectancy data are not available, hospital beds per 1000 population. . This measure is appropriate for developing countries and national-level data, but would skew hdis for. A sparsely populated county with a large state health facility would rate very high, and heavily populated counties with fewer in-county medical institutions would rate very low. . In addition, the relatively small size of North Carolina counties, laid out so that the county seats would never be more than one day's travel by horse, results in many citizens crossing county lines to visit their primary care physician, as well as regional hospitals. The measure used here was licensed physicians per 10,000 population, taken from the 2000 census. . Americans are more likely to leave their home county for hospitalization than for routine and maintenance medical care, so this measure appears to better reflect the actual state of health in the.
North Carolina county-level Data All the data used to compute nchdis was taken from the 2000 list census (U.S. Income Although county-level income data is generally available for the. S., reviews it may not be for other countries, or for smaller geographic subdivisions. . Generally speaking, any per capita measure of income or employment is an appropriate proxy, as long as the same variable is observed for each unit under study. Income measures may be adjusted for inflation or not. . Ideally, since the costs of living in different counties change differently, if inflation were measured at the county level, it would be desirable to use inflation adjusted (or "real data. . Bureau of Labor Statistics of computes urban cpis for Charlotte and Raleigh, different price measures are generally not available for each county. . Consequently, the income measure used for North Carolina was per capita nominal income in 1999, which is not adjusted for inflation.
The hdi is calculated based on measures of per capita income, life expectancy, and literacy. . Because life expectancy is not available for North Carolina at the county level, an alternative measure of health was used. . county-wide data are available for licensed physicians per 10,000 population (ncdhhs 1997). . This was used in place of life expectancy. A deprivation ratio is computed for each county, for each of the three development dimensions of income, health, and education: dik (Zkmax zik zkmax zkmin), where i 1,100 refers to the 100 nc counties and k 1,3 refers to the three development dimensions. Zkmax and, zkmin refer to the maximum and minimum values for each of the three development variables. . The average deprivation ratio is computed for each county as: di (Di1 di2 di3. Finally, the human development Index is calculated as simply the difference between one and di : hdii. The undp has provided human development indices for nations in its annual Human development Report since 1990. .
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The higher the hdi, the better a county performs relative to others in terms of the three criteria of income, health, and education. The undp has provided human development indices for nations in its annual. Human development Report since 1990. . A major limitation of this overall combined measure is that it does not reflect variations or disparities among different groups heredity within a country:. G., regions, states, or provinces; urban.
Rural areas; males. Females; or different ethnic or demographic groups. Adapting undp's hdi methodology to Problems. Community development Analysis, this paper calculates hdis for the 100 counties of North Carolina using the undp methodology. . hdis provide a measure of local economic development and allow observation of the distribution of development throughout the state.
health and education deprivation ratios are calculated in the same way. The undp uses the most obviously straightforward and readily available statistics to calculate the deprivation ratios. . Per capita income. Dollars is used to measure income; mean life expectancy in years is used to measure health; mean literacy as a percent of the adult population is used to measure education. Alternative measures for the three dimensions can be used as long as the alternative measure is available for all the geographical units in the study. .
Often the undp uses hospital beds per 1000 population in place of life expectancy. . This consideration is important in implementing hdi methodology to smaller units, including states or provinces, counties, towns, or municipalities. . Smaller geographic units may not have current average income, life expectancy, or literacy statistics available. The average deprivation ratio is computed for each nation as: di (Di1 di2 di3. Finally, the human development Index is calculated as simply the difference between one and. Di : hdii.
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For example, revenue enhancement or redistribution policies should database be evaluated not only through their direct impact on the income measure, but through less direct impacts through education and health measures. . Spending on health, education, and other government services should be evaluated based on the need as indicated in a broad measure of well-being, such as the nchdi, as well as on the impact over time in improving nchdis for the most deprived counties. Theory: The undp human development Indices. The undp calculates a deprivation ratio for each nation, for each of the three development dimensions of income, health, and education: dik (Zkmax zik zkmax zkmin), where i 1,n refers to the n nations included in the undp. Human development Report and k 1,3 refers to the three development dimensions. Zkmax and, zkmin refer to the maximum and minimum values for each of the three development variables within the dataset including all countries. For income, a nation's deprivation ratio is the fraction of the difference between that nation's per capita income and that for the country with the highest income measure, divided by the maximum difference, resumes which is the difference between the income for the richest nation and.
This distribution is essential for targeting economic development initiatives in the most deprived counties, as well as targeting the kind of development necessary. . In addition, nchdis booklet can be used over time to assess the success of development initiatives and the impact of tax and fiscal policy. . The undp computes hdis for un member states based on measures of per capita income, life expectancy, and literacy. . Because life expectancy estimates are not available for North Carolina at the county level, an alternative measure of health was used, physicians per 10,000 of population. . When life expectancy data are unavailable or are not sufficiently current, the undp normally uses hospital beds per 1000 population to proxy life expectancy, but since nc county-wide data are available for licensed physicians per 10,000 population, and since this is more informative than hospital. The normal measure of education is adult literacy, which is available for North Carolina at the county level (Siedow 1998 but the data are not current. . The percentage of the 25 and over population which have completed high school or the equivalent was used instead. Nchdis are essential for evaluating the distribution of income, health, and education impacts across the state. .
of spending on income redistribution, education, and health care, but also by the residential migration economic development encourages with enhanced employment opportunity. . Conversely, however, augmented spending intended to alleviated extreme variation in the nchdi across counties would necessarily prove fruitless, and perhaps counterproductive, if it results in the most desirable and productive workers migrating out of the deprived counties to those with more attractive economic opportunities. Introduction, this paper applies the methodology of the United Nations development Programmes (undp). Human development Report (undp 1990-) to calculate north Carolina human development Indices (nchdis) for the 100 counties of North Carolina. . Traditional indices of economic development, such as per capita income, employment, and population fail to provide a broader measure of a regions performance. . The undp hdi measure incorporates such other significant factors as health and literacy. . The hdi is an alternative measure of economic growth and development used to assess broader economic development performance than can be assessed through income measures alone (Cortes 1999; Kaminarides and Nissan 1999). This paper calculates hdis for the 100 counties of North Carolina using the undp methodology. . nchdis provide a measure of relative, though not absolute, local economic development and allow observation of the distribution of development throughout the state. .
Texts approved by the european Parliament (see page 34). Print, e-mail, short Link. The north carolina human development report. Western Carolina University, abstract, this paper computes and interprets Human development Indices (HDIs) for the 100 counties of North Carolina. . Human development Indices include information on three dimensions: income, health, and education, and therefore provide a more balanced and complete assessment remote of well-being than measures of income alone. Per capita nominal income is used as the income measure. Physicians per 10,000 of population is the health measure. . High-school completion is the measure of education. .
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Rank, país, idh, estimativas de 2016 (publicadas em 2017) 6, mudança em relação ao ranking do ano anterior 6, estimativas de 2016 (publicadas em 2017) 6, mudança em relação ao ranking do ano anterior. Noruega 0,949 0,001 2 (1 austrália 0,939 0,002 2, suíça 0,939 0,001 4, alemanha 0,926 0,002 5 (1 dinamarca 0,925 writings 0,002 5 (1 singapura 0,925 0,001 7 (1 países baixos 0,924 0,001. Irlanda 0,923 0,003 9, islândia 0,921 0,002 10 (1) Canadá 0,920 0,001 10 (1) Estados Unidos 0,920 0,002 12 Hong Kong 0,917 0,001 13 nova zelândia 0,915 0,002 14 (1) suécia 0,913 0,004 15 (1) liechtenstein 0,912 0,001 16 reino Unido 0,909 0,001 17 Japão. Location: Strasbourg, france, every year, a, european Parliament committee reviews the eib's activities and presents a report to a plenary session of the european Parliament, to which the eib president is invited. This enables the european Parliament to consider the eib activities in the context of its legislative, budgetary and political responsibilities. At the same time, the eib keeps abreast of Parliament's concerns and priorities. Related Documents, report on Action taken on the eib annual Report 1999, submitted by Mr Alain Lipietz on behalf of the committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs.