Global warming essay in english pdf

global warming essay in english pdf

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51 Scheraga and Grambsch 52 identify 9 fundamental principles to be considered when designing adaptation policy. The effects of climate change vary by region. The effects of climate change may vary across demographic groups. Climate change poses both risks and opportunities. The effects of climate change must be considered in the context of multiple stressors and factors, which may be as important to the design of adaptive responses as the sensitivity of the change. Adaptation comes at a cost. Adaptive responses vary in effectiveness, as demonstrated by current efforts to cope with climate variability.

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44 unfccc funding for least developed countries includes development of dialogue a national Adaptation Programme of Action, which prioritizes requests to fund specific adaptation projects. There are several other climate change adaptation finance proposals, most of which employ official development assistance or oda. 9 These proposals range from a world Bank program, to proposals involving auctioning of carbon allowances, to a global carbon or transportation tax, to compensation-based funding. 9 Other proposals suggest using market-based mechanisms, rather than oda, such as the higher Ground foundation's vulnerability reduction credit (VRC) 45 or a program similar to the Clean development Mechanism, 46 to raise private money for climate change adaptation. The copenhagen Accord, the most recent global climate change agreement, commits developed countries to goal of sending 100 billion per year to developing phd countries in assistance for climate change mitigation and adaptation through 2020. 47 This agreement, while not binding, would dwarf current amounts dedicated to adaptation in developing countries. This climate change fund is called the Green Climate fund from the 2010 United Nations Climate Change conference. 48 Integration with development aid edit many developing countries prioritize economic development over addressing the issue of climate change, as they are more concerned about pre-existing problems such as poverty, malnutrition, food insecurity, 49 availability of drinking water, indebtedness, illiteracy, unemployment, local resource conflicts, and. On the other hand, climate change threatens to exacerbate or stall progress on fixing some of these pre-existing problems. Advocates have thus proposed integrating climate change adaptation into poverty reduction programs. 50 Considerations and general recommendations edit Principles for effective policy edit Adaptive policy can occur at the global, national, or local scale, with outcomes dependent on the political will in that area.

42 Under the gef umbrella, the gef trust Fund, the least developed countries Fund (ldcf), and the Special Climate Change fund (sccf) operate to carry out the climate change adaptation financing goals of the gef. 42 Another unfccc mechanism is The Adaptation Fund, as a result of negotiations during cop15 and cop16, which provides funds for projects that prove to have additional benefits for adaptation to climate change. The Clean development Mechanism (cdm set up as part of the kyoto Protocol to the Framework convention, is the main source of income for the unfccc adaptation Fund. This fund was established in 2007. 43 The cdm is subject to a 2 levy, friend which could raise between 300 million and 600 million over the 2008-12 period. The actual amount raised will depend on the carbon price. As of August 2010, The Adaptation Fund has not yet disbursed any funding; needs update a call for proposals was issued in April 2010.

global warming essay in english pdf

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And in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation, developed countries biography commit to a goal of mobilizing jointly usd100 billion a year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries. — copenhagen Accord However, a key point of contention between states at the unfcc copenhagen Climate summit was who was to foot the bill and if aid is to be given, how is it to affect other levels of development aid. 40 The concept of additionality has thus arisen and the eu has asked its member states to come up with definitions of what they understand additionality to mean, the four main yardage definitions are: 40 Climate finance classified as aid, but additional to (over and above). The main point being that there is a conflict between the oecd states budget deficit cuts, the need to help developing countries adapt to develop sustainably and the need to ensure that funding does not come from cutting aid to other important Millennium development goals. 40 International aid mechanisms edit As of 2010, the aggregate of current climate change adaptation programs will not raise enough money to fund adaptation to climate change. 41 There are, however, several programs and proposals to finance adaptation to climate change in developing countries. The United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change (unfccc) runs a program called the Global Environmental Facility, which provides some funding for adaptation to least developed countries and small island states.

35 36 This represents a doubling of current official development assistance (ODA). This estimate has been critiqued by some scientists who argues that the unfccc estimate underestimates the cost of adaptation to climate change by a factor of 2. 37 Moreover, sectors such as tourism, mining, energy, and retail were not included in the unfccc estimate. The more recent World Bank Study, "Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change found that the costs of adaptation would be in the range of 75100 billion per year between 20; with higher estimates under the wetter global scenario than the drier scenario, assuming that warming. 38 The benefits of strong, early action on mitigation considerably outweigh the costs. 39 The copenhagen Accord was agreed on in order to create a commitment by developed countries to provide: 40 new and additional resources. Approaching usd 30 billion for the period with balanced allocation between adaptation and mitigation.

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global warming essay in english pdf

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28 There are difficulties in doing this calculation, for example, future climate change damages are uncertain, as are the future costs of adaptation. Also, deciding what "optimal" is depends on value judgements made by the economist doing the study (Azar, 1998). 29 For example, how to value impacts occurring in different regions and different times, and "non-market" impacts,. G., damages to ecosystems. 30 Economics cannot engineer provide definitive answers to these questions over valuation, and some valuations may be viewed as being controversial (Banuri., 1996,. . 31 Some reviews indicate that policymakers are uncomfortable with using the results of this type of economic analysis. 32 This is due to the uncertainties surrounding cost estimates for climate change damages, adaptation, and mitigation.

Another type of analysis is based on a risk -based approach to the problem. It has been argued that adaptation could play an important role in climate policy, but not in an explicit trade-off against mitigation. 12 Cost estimates and international aid edit many scientists, policy makers, and the ipcc fourth Assessment Report have agreed that disadvantaged nations need to do more to adapt to climate change, especially highly populated regions of developing countries with low adaptive capacity. The United Nations development Programme estimated that an additional usd 86 billion per year would be needed where? 33 According to unfccc estimates in 2007, costs of adaptation to climate change would cost 49171 billion per year globally by 2030, 34 of which a significant share of the additional investment and financial flows, usd 2867 billion would be needed in 2030 in non-Annex.

25 After assessing the literature on sustainability and climate change scientists concluded with high confidence that up to the year 2050, an effort to cap ghg emissions at 550 ppm would benefit developing countries significantly. 26 This was judged to be especially the case when combined with enhanced adaptation. By 2100, however, it was still judged likely that there would be significant climate change impacts. This was judged to be the case even with aggressive mitigation and significantly enhanced adaptive capacity. The ipcc group also pointed out that climate change adaptation measures can reinforce and be reinforced by efforts to promote sustainable development and reduce poverty.


19 Costs and international funding edit cost of adaptation. Mitigation edit see also: Economics of global warming  Trade offs Adaptation and mitigation can be viewed as two competing policy responses, with tradeoffs between the two. The other tradeoff is with climate change impacts. In practice, however, the actual tradeoffs are debatable. 27 This is because the people who bear emission reduction costs or benefits are often different from those who pay or benefit from adaptation measures. Economists, using cost-benefit analysis, have attempted to calculate an "optimal" balance of the costs and benefits between climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation.

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17 Adaptation is handicapped by uncertainty over the book effects of global warming on specific locations such as the southwestern United States or phenomena such as the Indian monsoon. 18 Complementary to mitigation edit ipcc working Group ii, 19 the United States National Academy of Sciences, 20 the United Nations Disaster Risk reduction Office, 21 and other science policy experts 22 agree that while mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases is important, adaptation. Some, like the uk institution of Mechanical Engineers, worry that mitigation efforts will largely fail. 23 24 The ipcc group fuller points out that the world's ability to mitigate global warming is an economic and political challenge. Given that greenhouse gas levels are already elevated, the lag of decades between emissions and some impacts, and the significant economic and political challenges of success, the ipcc group points out that it is uncertain how much climate change will be mitigated. 19 developing countries are the least able to adapt to climate change. Doing so depends on such factors as wealth, technology, education, infrastructure, access to resources, management capabilities, acceptance of the existence of climate change and the consequent need for action, and sociopolitical will.

global warming essay in english pdf

14 Contents Effects of the global warming edit main article: Effects of global warming The projected effects for the environment and for civilization are numerous and varied. The main effect is an increasing global average temperature. The average surface temperature could increase by 3 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit (approximately.67.56 degrees Celsius) by the end of the century if carbon emissions aren't reduced. 15 This causes a variety of secondary effects, namely, changes in patterns of precipitation, rising sea levels, altered patterns of agriculture, increased extreme weather events, the expansion of the range of tropical diseases, and the opening of new marine trade routes. Potential effects include sea level rise of 110 to 770 mm (0.36.5 feet) between 19, repercussions to agriculture, possible slowing of the thermohaline circulation, reductions in the ozone layer, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, lowering of ocean ph, and the. A summary of probable effects and recent understanding can be found in the report made for the ipcc third Assessment Report by working Group. contribution of Working Group ii detailing the impacts of global warming for the ipcc fourth Assessment Report has been summarized for policymakers.

been forthcoming. 8 9 The adaptation challenge grows with the magnitude and the rate of climate change. Another response to climate change is known as climate change mitigation. 10 It advocates to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or enhance the removal of these gases from the atmosphere (through carbon sinks ). 11 even the most effective reductions in emissions, however, would not prevent further climate change impacts, making the need for adaptation unavoidable. 12 A study has concluded, with very high confidence, that in the absence of mitigation efforts, the effects of climate change would reach such a magnitude as to make adaptation impossible for some natural ecosystems. 12 Others are concerned that climate adaptation programs might interfere with the existing development programs and thus lead to unintended consequences for vulnerable groups. 13 For human systems, the economic and social costs of unmitigated climate change would be very high.

(August 2016 diagram explaining the relationships between risk, hazard mitigation, resilience, and adaptation. Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming. 1, even if emissions are stabilized relatively soon, global warming and its effects should last many years, and adaptation would be necessary to the resulting changes in diary climate. 2, adaptation is especially important in developing countries since those countries are predicted to bear the brunt of the effects of global warming. 3, that is, the capacity and potential for humans to adapt (called adaptive capacity ) is unevenly distributed across different regions and populations, and developing countries generally have less capacity to adapt. 4, furthermore, the degree of adaptation correlates to the situational focus on environmental issues. 5, therefore, adaptation requires the situational assessment of sensitivity and vulnerability to environmental impacts. 6, adaptive capacity is closely linked to social and economic development according to the. 7 The economic costs of adaptation to climate change are likely to cost billions of dollars annually for the next several decades, though the amount of money needed is unknown.

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Global warming essay in english pdf
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