55 When General Muhammad zia-ul-Haq overthrew Bhutto and came to power in 1977, he "accorded Mawdudi the status of a senior statesman, sought his advice, and allowed his words to adorn the front pages of the newspapers. Maududi proved receptive to zia's overtures and supported his decision to execute Bhutto." 55 Despite some doctrinal difference (Maududi wanted sharia by education rather than by state fiat 56 maududi enthusiastically supported zia and his program of Islamization or " Sharization ". 44 Beliefs and ideology edit maududi poured his energy into books, pamphlets and more than 1000 speeches and press statements, laying the ground work for making pakistan an Islamic state, but also dealing with a variety of issues of interest in pakistan and the muslim. 3 he sought to be a mujaddid, "renewing" ( tajdid ) the religion. This role had great responsibility as he believed a mujaddid "on the whole, has to undertake and perform the same kind of work as is accomplished by a prophet." 57 While earlier mujaddids had renewed religion he wanted also "to propagate true islam, the absence. Criticism of Sufism or the Ulama ) and closer to orthodox Islam over the course of his career, in order to "expand"the "base of support" of Jama'at-e islami. 61 Qur'an edit maududi believed that the quran was not just religious literature to be "recited, pondered, or investigated for hidden truths" according to vali nasr, but a "socio-religious institution 62 a work to be accepted "at face value" and obeyed.
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constitution was adopted after accommodating many of the demands of the. Maududi endorsed the constitution and claimed it a victory for Islam. 52 However following a coup by general ayub Khan, the constitution was shelved and maududi and his party were politically repressed, maududi being imprisoned aid in 1964 and again in 1967. The ji joined an opposition alliance with secular parties, compromising with doctrine to support a woman candidate ( Fatima jinnah ) for president against Khan in 1965. 52 In the december 1970 general election, maududi toured the country as a "leader in waiting" 53 and ji spent considerable energy and resources fielding 151 candidates. Despite this, the party won only four seats in the national assembly and four in the provincial assemblies. 53 The loss led maududi to withdraw from political activism in 1971 and return to scholarship. 54 In 1972 he resigned as ji's Ameer (leader) for reasons of health. 42 However it was shortly thereafter that Islamism gathered steam in pakistan in the form of the nizam-i-mustafa (Order of the Prophet) movement, an alliance of conservative political groups united against Zulfikar Ali Bhutto which the ji gave shape to and which bolstered its standing. 44 55 In 1977, maududi "returned to the center stage". When Bhutto attempted to defuse tensions on April where 16, 1977, he came to maududi's house for consultations.
Maududi as well as the traditionalist ulama of pakistan wanted Ahmadi designated as non-Muslims, Ahmadis such as Muhammad Zafarullah Khan sacked from all high level government positions, and intermarriage between Ahmadis and other Muslims prohibited. 48 The campaign generated riots in Lahore, leading to the deaths of at least 200 Ahmadis, and selective declaration of martial law. 42 maududi was arrested by the military deployment headed by lieutenant General azam Khan and sentenced to death for his part in the agitation. 44 However, the anti-Ahmadi campaign enjoyed much popular support, 49 and strong public pressure ultimately convinced the government to release him after two years of imprisonment. 44 50 According to vali nasr, maududi's unapologetic and impassive stance after being sentenced, ignoring advise to ask for clemency, had an "immense" affect on his supporters. 51 It was seen as a "victory of Islam proposal over un-Islam proof of his leadership and staunch faith. 51 The campaign shifted the focus of national politics towards Islamicity.
44 maududi and the ji were especially influential in the early years of General zia ul-Haq 's rule. His political activity, particularly in support of the creation of an Islamic state clashed with the government, (dominated for many years by a secular political class and resulted in several arrests and periods of incarceration. The first was in 1948 when he and several other ji leaders were jailed after maududi objected to the government's clandestine sponsorship of jihad in Kashmir while professing to observe a ceasefire with India. 45 In 1951 46 and again in 1956-7, 47 the compromises involved in electoral politics led to a split in the party over what some members felt were a lowering of ji's moral standards. In 1951, the ji shura passed a resolution in support of the party withdrawing from politics, 46 while maududi argued for continued involvement. Maududi prevailed at an open party meeting in 1951, and several senior ji leaders resigned in protest, further strengthened maududi's position and beginning the growth of a "cult of personality" around him." 46 In 1957 maududi again overruled the vote of the shura to withdraw. 47 In 1953, he and the ji participated in a campaign against the Ahmadiyya community in pakistan. Anti-Ahmadi groups argued that the Ahmadiyya did not embrace muhammad as the last prophet.
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This state would not be theocracy, maududi held, but a "theodemocracy because its rule would be based on the entire muslim community, not the ulema (Islamic scholars). 40 Initially, maududi opposed the creation of a separate muslim state in the subcontinent. As ji ameer (leader) he opposed the leaders of the muslim league who sought an independent Muslim-majority state. He believed that An Islamic state is a muslim state, but a muslim state may not be an Islamic state unless and until the constitution of the state is based on the qur'an and Sunnah. In particular he opposed the pakistani state allowing conventional banking and giving too many rights to minorities and Muslims sects such as the Ahmadiyya he considered heretical. 41 After founding of pakistan edit with the partition of India in 1947, the ji was split to follow the political boundaries of new countries carved out of British India.
The organisation headed by maududi became known as Jamaat-i-islami pakistan, and the remnant of ji in India as the jamaat-e-islami hind. Later ji parties were the bangladesh Jamaat-e-islami, and autonomous groups in Indian Kashmir. 42 With the founding of pakistan, maududi's career underwent a "fundamental change being drawn more and more into politics, and spending less time on ideological and scholarly pursuits. 43 Although his Jamaat-i islami party never developed a mass following, it and maududi did develop significant political influence. It played a "prominent part" in the agitation which brought down President ayub Khan in 1969 and in the overthrow of Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1977.
33 by 1937 he became in conflict with Jamiat Ulema-e-hind and its support for a pluralistic Indian society where the jamiat hoped Muslims could "thrive. Without sacrificing their identity or interests." 34 Madrasa e furqania aurangbad (currently zilah parishad office) India in that year he also married Mahmudah Begum, a woman from an old Muslim family with "considerable financial resources". The family provide financial help and allowed him to devote himself to research and political action, but his wife had "liberated modern ways, and at first rode a bicycle and did not observe purdah. She was given greater latitude by maududi than were other Muslims. 35 Political activity edit At this time he also began work on establishing an organization for da'wah (propagation and preaching of Islam) that would be an alternative to both the Indian National Congress and the muslim league. 36 At this time he decided to leave hyderabad for Northwest India, closer to the muslim political center of gravity in India.
In 1938, after meeting the famous Muslim poet Muhammad Iqbal, maududi moved to a piece of land in the village of Pathankot in the punjab to oversee a waqf (Islamic foundation) called Daru'l-Islam. 37 His hope was to make it a "nerve center" of Islamic revival in India, an ideal religious community, providing leaders and the foundation for a genuine religious movement. He wrote to various Muslim luminaries invited them to join him there. 38 The community, like jamaat-i-islami later, was composed of rukn (members a shura (a consultative council and a sadr (head). 39 After a dispute with the person who donated the land for the community over maududi's anti-nationalist politics, maududi quit the waqf and in 1939 moved the daru'l-Islam with its membership from Pathankot to lahore. 39 In Lahore he was hired by Islamiyah College but was sacked after less than a year for his openly political lectures. 29 founding the jamaat-i-islami edit main article: Jamaat-e-islami pakistan main entrance of the house of syed Abul A'la maududi 4-a, zaildar Park, ichhra, lahore In August 1941, maududi founded Jamaat-i-islami (JI) in British India as a religious political movement to promote Islamic values and practices. His Mission was supported by eminent scholars such as maulana Amin Ahsan Islahi, mualana muhammad Manzoor naumani, maulana Abul Hassan Ali nudvi and maulana naeem Siddiqui. Maududi proposed forming a muslim state based on Islamic law and in which Islam would guide all areas of life.
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He began to turn more towards the Islam, 27 and believed that Democracy could be a viable option for Muslims only if the majority of Indians were muslim. 27 maududi spent some time in Delhi as a young man but went back to hyderabad in 1928. 28 Political writings edit birthplace of Abul Ala maududi (Cheli pura currently manzoor pura) business Aurangabad India it was from 1933 to 1941 that maududi's "most important and influential" works were published, according to scholar seyyed Vali nasr. Nasr describes his role at the time as a "ideologue" rather than a journalist he was earlier, or the political activist he became after founding his party. 29 In 1932 he joined another journal ( Tarjuman al-Quran ) and from 1932 to 1937 he began to develop his political ideas, 13 and turn towards the cause of Islamic revivalism and Islam as an ideology, 30 as opposed to what he called "traditional. 31 The government of Hyderabad helped support the journal buying 300 subscriptions which it donated to libraries around India. 32 maududi was alarmed by the decline of Muslim ruled Hyderabad, the increasing secularism and lack of Purdah among Muslim women in Delhi.
Meanwhile, his father shifted to Bhopal there maududi befriended niaz fatehpuri, another modernist where he suffered a severe paralysis attack and died leaving no property or money, forcing his son to abort his education. In 1919, by the time he was 16, and still a modernist in mindset, he moved to delhi and read books by his distant relative, the reformist sayyid Ahmad Khan. He also learned English and German in order to study, intensively, western philosophy, sociology and history for full five years : he eventually came up to the conclusion that " ulama in the past did not endeavor to discover the causes of Europe's rise, and. Comparing their contribution to that of Muslims, he concluded that the latter's did not reach even 1 percent." 17 journalism edit even if he began to get seriously involved in journalism from the early 1920s onwards, being appointed editor of the leading weekly Urdu newspaper. I am a man of the middle cadre, who has imbibed something from both the systems of education, the new and the old; and has gathered my knowledge by traversing both paths. By virtue of my inner light, i conclude that neither the old school nor the new is totally in the right. From 1924 to 1927 maududi was the editor of al-Jamiah, the newspaper of the jamiyat-i ulama (an organization of Islamic clergy a position of "extreme importance and influence." Always interested in independence from the British, maududi lost faith in the congress Party and its anne Muslim.
father's mother was related to Islamic modernist thinker sayyid Ahmad Khan. 14 On his mother's side, his ancestors moved out from Turkey around the times of emperor Aurangzeb, 15 and his maternal grandfather, mirza qurban Ali baig Khan Salik (1816-1881 was a well-known writer and poet in Delhi, a friend of the famous Urdu poet Ghalib. 16 Childhood edit At an early age, until he was nine, maududi was given home education, he "received religious nurture at the hands of his father and from a variety of teachers employed by him." 13 As his father wanted him to become a maulvi. 17 he also studied books of mantiq (logic). 18 19 A precocious child, he translated Qasim Amin 's The new Woman (Al-Mir'ah al-jadidah a modernist and feminist work, from Arabic into Urdu at the age. 20 21 In the field of translation, years later, he also worked on some 3,500 pages from Asfar, a work of Persian mystical thinker Mulla sadra. 22 His thought would influence mawdudi, as "Sadra's notions of rejuvenation of the temporal order, and the necessity of the reign of Islamic law (the shari'ah) for the spiritual ascension of man, found an echo in Mawdudi's works." 23 Education edit When he was. He then moved to a more traditionalist Darul Uloom in Hyderabad.
6, he was the essay founder of the. Jamaat-e-islami, the then largest Islamic organisation in Asia. 7, he and his party are thought to have been the pioneer in politicizing Islam and generating support for. Islamic state in pakistan. 8 They are thought to have helped inspire general Muhammad zia-ul-Haq to introduce " Sharization " to pakistan, 9 and to have been greatly strengthened by him after tens of thousands of members and sympathizers were given jobs in the judiciary and civil service during. 10 he was the first recipient of the saudi Arabian King faisal International Award for his service to Islam in 1979. 11 he has been the second person in history whose absentee funeral was observed in the kaaba, succeeding King Ashama ibn-Abjar. 3 7 Contents Early life edit background edit maududi was born in Aurangabad India, then part of the princely state enclave of Hyderabad, until it returned to India in 1948. He was the youngest of three sons of 12 maulana Ahmad Hasan, a lawyer by profession.
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Syed Abul A'la maududi Chishti urdu : alternative spellings of last name. Maudoodi, mawdudi, also known as, abul Ala maududi ; 25 September 1903 22 September 1979) was. Muslim philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam. 1, his numerous works, which "covered a range of disciplines such as Quranic exegesis, hadith, thesis law, philosophy and history 2 were written in, urdu, but then translated into English, Arabic, hindi, bengali, tamil, burmese and many other languages. 3, he sought to revive islam, 4 and to propagate what he understood to be "true islam". 5, he believed that Islam was essential for politics, and that it was necessary to institute sharia and preserve. Islamic culture from what he viewed as the evils of secularism, nationalism and socialism, which he understood to be the influence western imperialism.