War loan, co-chairman of the victory book campaign, and part of the new York State defense council. S, some of his ideas and vision helped portray india as the most democratic republic in Asia by having the people's Congress of India adapt a bill of Rights. Freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and freedom of petition were added to the constitution of India. Citation needed bernays reported turning down the nazis, nicaragua under the somoza family, francisco Franco, and Richard Nixon. 31 Non-profit clients edit In 1920 Bernays worked on the first naacp convention in Atlanta, georgia. His campaign was considered successful because there was no violence at the convention. His campaign focused on the important contributions of African-Americans to Whites living in the south. He later received an award from the naacp for his contribution.
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Entertainers including Al Jolson, john Drew, raymond Hitchcock, and the dolly sisters performed on the White house lawn. Newspapers reported enthusiastically that coolidge had laughed. 27 A desperate herbert hoover consulted with Bernays a month before the 1932 presidential election. Bernays advised hoover to create disunity within his opposition and to present an image of himself as an invincible leader. 28 Bernays advised William assignment o'dwyer, in his candidacy for mayor of New York city, on how to appear in front of different demographics. For example, he should tell Irish voters about his actions against the Italian mafia —and Italian voters about his plans to reform the police department. To jews he should appear as a committed opponent of the nazis. 29 he helped to name the President's Emergency committee for Employment, suggesting this name as preferable to the "Committee for Unemployment". 30 During World War ii, bernays advised the United States Information Agency as well as the Army and navy. He was chairman of the national Advisory committee of the Third.
The event, which spanned across several major cities in the. S., was designed to biography celebrate the 50th anniversary of Thomas Edison 's invention of the light-bulb (though the light-bulb had been previously invented by joseph Swan ). The publicity elements of the jubilee including the special issuance of. Postage stamp and Edison's "re-creating" the invention of the light bulb for a nationwide radio audience provided evidence of Bernays' love for big ideas and " ballyhoo ". A follow-up event for the 75th anniversary, produced for television by david. Selznick, was titled Light's diamond Jubilee and broadcast on all four American tv networks on October 24, 1954. Political clients edit In 1924 Bernays set up a vaudeville "pancake breakfast" for Calvin coolidge to change his stuffy image before the 1924 election.
Bernays used his uncle sigmund Freud 's ideas to help convince the public, among other things, that bacon and eggs was the true all-American breakfast. S, his Dixie cup campaign was designed to convince consumers that only disposable cups were sanitary by linking the imagery of an overflowing cup with subliminal images of vaginas and venereal disease. 25 he was publicity director for the 1939 New York world's fair. 26 Another selection from his papers, the typescript on Publicizing the Physical Culture Industry, 1927 : " Bernarr Macfadden reveals Bernays' opinion of the leader of the physical culture movement. Yet another client, department store visionary Edward. Filene, was the subject of the typescript on a boston Department Store magnate. Bernays' typescript on the Importance of Samuel Strauss : "1924 Private life" shows that the public relations counsel and his wife were fans of consumerism critic Samuel Strauss. Citation needed light's Golden Jubilee edit main article: Light's Golden Jubilee in October 1929, bernays was involved in promoting Light's Golden Jubilee.
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Counsel on public relations edit After returning to new York, bernays opened a public relations business. In 1923 he published a book, " Crystallizing Public Opinion outlining his profession, and taught a course at New York University. Both of these are considered firsts in phd the modern field of public relations. Bernays, who pursued his calling in New York city from 1919 to 1963, styled himself a "public relations counsel". He had very pronounced views on the differences between what he did and what people in advertising did. A pivotal figure in the orchestration of elaborate corporate advertising campaigns and multi-media consumer spectacles, he nevertheless is among those listed in the acknowledgments section of the seminal government social science study "Recent Social Trends in the United States" (1933). 23 Notable clients and campaigns edit further information: Public relations campaigns of Edward Bernays Bernays's famous corporate clients included Procter gamble, the American Tobacco company, cartier Inc., best foods, cbs, the United Fruit Company, general Electric, dodge motors, the fluoridationists of the public health Service.
Bernays attempted to help Venida hair nets company to get women to wear their hair longer so they would use hairnets more. The campaign failed but did get government officials to require hairnets for some jobs. Bernays worked with Procter gamble for ivory -brand bar soap. The campaign successfully convinced people that ivory soap was medically superior to other soaps. He also promoted soap through sculpting contests and floating contests because the soap floated better than competing products.
To create interest in diaghilev's Ballets Russes, he educated Americans about the subtleties of ballet—and publicized a picture of Flore revalles, wearing a tight-fitting dress, at the Bronx zoo, posed with a large snake. He built up Enrico caruso as an idol whose voice was so sensitive that comically extreme measures were taken to protect. 16 World War i edit After the. Entered the war, the committee on Public Information hired Bernays to work for its Bureau of Latin-American Affairs, based in an office in New York. Bernays, along with lieutenant. Ackerman, focused on building support for war, domestically and abroad, focusing especially on businesses operating in Latin America.
17 18 Bernays referred to this work as " psychological warfare ". 19 20 After fighting ended, bernays was part of a sixteen-person publicity group working for the cpi at the paris peace conference. A scandal arose from his reference to propaganda in a press release. As reported by the new York world, the "announced object of the expedition is 'to interpret the work of the peace conference by keeping up a worldwide propaganda to disseminate American accomplishments and ideals. 21 22 Bernays later described a realization that his work for the cpi could be also be used in peacetime: There was one basic lesson I learned in the cpi—that efforts comparable to those applied by the cpi to affect the attitudes of the enemy. In other words, what could be done for a nation at war could be done for organizations and people in a nation at peace. — Edward Bernays, cutlip (1994.
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They took editorial positions in favor of showers and shredder against corsets and distributed free copies to thousands of physicians across the country. 11 Two months later they took up the cause of Damaged goods, an English translation of Les avariés by eugène Brieux. After publishing a positive review of the play, bernays and Robinson wrote to its lead actor, richard Bennett : "The editors of the medical review of reviews support your praiseworthy intention to fight sex-pruriency in the United States by producing Brieux's play damaged goods. You can count list on our help. 12 The play controversially dealt with venereal disease and prostitution—Bernays called it "a propaganda play that fought for sex education." 13 he created the " Medical review of reviews Sociological Fund Committee" and successfully solicited the support of such elite figures as John. Rockefeller,., franklin Delano roosevelt and Eleanor roosevelt, reverend John haynes Holmes, and Anne harriman Sands Rutherford Vanderbilt, wife of William Kissam Vanderbilt. 14 15 Press agent edit After his foray into the world of theater, bernays worked as a creative press agent for various performers and performances. Already, he was using a variety of techniques which would become hallmarks of his later practice. He promoted the daddy long Legs stage play by tying it in with the cause of charity for orphans.
Later, however, she changed her mind and her name, becoming Doris Bernays. By all accounts, Fleischman played a major though quiet abuses role in the bernays public relations business—including ghost-writing numerous memos and speeches, and publishing a newsletter. 10 After graduating from Cornell, bernays wrote for the national Nurseryman journal. Then he worked at the new York city Produce Exchange, where his father was a grain exporter. He went to paris and worked for louis Dreyfus and Company reading grain cables. By december of the same year he had returned to new York. 8 Medical editor edit following a meeting in New York with school friend Fred Robinson, bernays became coeditor of Medical review of reviews and dietetic and Hygienic gazette in 1912.
family moved from vienna to the United States in the 1890s. Ely bernays became a grain exporter at the manhattan Produce Exchange, then sent for his wife and children. 6 In 1892, his family moved to new York city, where he attended dewitt Clinton High School. 7 In 1912 he graduated from Cornell University with a degree in agriculture, but chose journalism as his first career. 8 he married Doris. 9 Fleischman, a member of the lucy Stone league was public about keeping her last name, and her husband not only sanctioned but touted this fact. She was the first married woman to be issued. Passport without her husband's last name.
He worked for london dozens of major American corporations including. Procter gamble and, general Electric, and for government agencies, politicians, and non-profit organizations. Of his many books, Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923) and, propaganda (1928) gained special attention as early efforts to define and theorize the field of public relations. Citing works of writers such. Gustave le bon, wilfred Trotter, walter Lippmann, and his own double uncle. Sigmund Freud, he described the masses as irrational and subject to herd instinct —and outlined how skilled practitioners could use crowd psychology and psychoanalysis to control them in desirable ways. 4 5 Contents Family and education edit Edward Bernays was the son of Ely bernays and Anna Freud Bernays.
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Edward louis Bernays ( /bərneɪz/ ; German: bɛɐnaɪs ; november 22, 1891 march 9, 1995) was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as "the father of public relations". 2, bernays was named one of the 100 most influential Americans of the 20th century. 3, he was the subject of a full length biography. Larry tye called, the father of Spin (1999) and later an award-winning 2002 documentary for the. Bbc by, adam Curtis called, the century of the self. His best-known campaigns include a 1929 effort to promote female smoking by branding cigarettes as feminist ". Torches of Freedom " and his work for the. United Fruit Company connected with the, cia-orchestrated overthrow of the democratically elected guatemalan government in 1954.reviews