By the Treaty of Frankfort, Alsace-lorraine was given to Prussia, and a billion dollars was paid to germany. The german empire was created in January, 1871, with William of Prussia becoming Emperor William. All German states except Austria were united into one nation. The german empire its government. The german Empire became the leading power in the continent. Its govern- ment was constitutional in appearance, but in reality autocratic. The government of the german empire branch powers executive: Commanded the armed forces and controlled German Emperor foreign affairs.
1916 : The, irish
Bismarck brought about a war with Austria over the future of Schleswig-Holstein. He defeated Austria in the seven weeks s War, even though many of the smaller German states sided with Austria. The peace treaty was lenient; the german Confederation, which Austria led, was dissolved, and a north German Confederation created under the leadership of Prussia. Austria was forced to give venetia to Italy, an ally of Prussia. However, the south German states refused to join the new Confederation. To get these south German states into a united Germany was the next step. These states bavaria, wuttemburg, baden and Hesse, mainly catholic feared Protestant Prussia. Only a war with a foreign nation would lead them into a union for mutual protection. Napoleon iii was willing to go to war to save his throne. The result was a disaster for the French. The south German states joined with the other German states, the French armies were destroyed, paris was besieged and taken.
Leaders in the fight for unification. Otto von Bismarck became chief minister of Prussia, built up the army and prepared Prussia for leadership. Through his blood an iron policy book (willingness to use war and force) Bismarck became the chief architect of German unification. William i, king of Prussia, who supported Bismarck and his policies. Von Moltke, who planned and led the Prussian armies to victories in the wars that created a united Germany. Wars to win unification. The danish War (1864). In 1863 Denmark annexed the two duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, though they were part of the german confederation. This led to a war in which Austria and Prussia defeated Denmark and took over the duchies.
Common language, history and cultural traditions, awakened and stimulated by the writings of Fichte, herder, hegel and others. The Industrial revolution, with roads, railroads and growing trade all uniting the german states. Early efforts toward unification. Napoleon helped unification by (a) destroying the holy roman Empire, (b) reducing the number of German shredder states (c) stimulating nationalism in Prussia after defeating it at Jena. The congress of vienna (1815) created a german Conferation of 38 states, with Austria the leader and Prussia second. Formation of the zollverein (economic union) by Prussia and other German states (1833) established free trade among london its members, thus creating an economic basis for union. The Frankfort Assembly (1848) tried to create a unified Germany but failed because of Austrian opposition, differences among the german leaders, and Prussian unwillingness to lead a democratic movement.
An important force in helping nationalism grow was the state-controlled school system. (That is why many struggles took place on the issue of state- versus-church control of schools.) Studies in geopraphy, history, art and scientific achievement promote feelings of pride. Steps leading to the unification of germany roadblocks in the way. Opposition of the many petty rulers, each of whom feared the loss of power. Differences in religion between the catholic south and the Protestant north. Jealousy and fear of Prussia, the largest state. Rivalry between Austria and Prussia both competed to control smaller German states. Foreign opposition form France (which did not want a large and powerful neighbor). Factors favoring unification.
History - the easter, rising
Changing the map of the world. As people came under the influence of nationalist ideas, those who were not free from foreign rule sought and fought for their freedom. Since 1945, 40 new countries have come into existence. The development of Militarism. As the nation-in-arms became more common, the building up of armed forces became an important expression of nationalism.
Force was the usual method by which a nation won its freedom or, after gaining report it, sought to increase its power. Winning control of and exploiting undeveloped areas of the world was part of the role of a great power. This became a dominant motive for countries which gained nationhood fairly late like germany and Italy. The new national states tried to become self- sufficient. This meant placing tariffs on foreign goods to stimulate domestic production and having colonies serve as sources for raw materials or markets for finished products. How nationalism is kept alive.
Many 19th-Century authors insisted that just as a person has an inalienable (cannot be surrendered or transferred) right to freedom, so did each nationality have a natural right to a separate political life. The nationalist movement did more to change the map of the world than any other single force. Nationalism is an emotion of feeling of intense loyalty of a group of people to their state. These loyalties may be based on geographical boundaries, one religion, same language, common customs and traditions. A nationality is a group of people who have such a common heritage.
A national state is an independent country consisting of such a nationality. Patriotism means devotion to the welfare of one s country. Chauvinism and jingosim are extreme nationalism for unreasonable glory, especially of the sort fed by military deeds. Forms of nationalist expression. Nationalism expressed itself in a variety of ways. It led to:.
Extract: 16 dead Men The easter, rising, executions
Frederick ii (the great) greatest prussion king. As an enlightened despot Frederick the Great encouraged education and religious toleration; he promoted industry and built canals, roads and bridges. In foreign affairs, he seized the rich province of Silesia from Austria and successfully fought off attempts to regain it barbing in the seven years War (1756-63). This war involved the major nations of Europe, with England on the side of Prussia, and France helping Austria. The war was fought in America, too, but there it was known as the French and Indian War. In 1772 Frederick took part in the first of three reviews partitions of Poland and gained the western part of that country. By the time he died, Frederick had made Prussia the most miltaristic and centralized government in all of Europe. He had also doubled its area and army, and made it a serious rival to austria in the management of German affairs long a monopoly of the hapsburgs. Nationalism aactor in world history the language of nationalism.
The german Ducy of Brandenberg in north central Europe on the baltic sea was a part of the holy roman Empire. This was ruled by the hohenzollern family, a line of rulers, called Electors. Since the 15th Century they had gradually extended their borders. Frederick william the great elector. Frederick made Prussia first among the german states. He centralized the government, and raised enough money to build foreman up a strong army. His son Frederick i (1701-13) took the title of King of Prussia. Frederick william ii (1713-40) annexed Swedish Pomerania.
: i see his Blood Upon the rose, by joseph Plunkett. Read: The foggy dew, by canon Charles oneill. Read: The wayfarer, by patrick pearse, read: Easter 1916, by wb yeats, read: Connolly, by liam Mac Gabhann. Read: Wishes for my son, by Thomas MacDonagh. Read: Comrades, by eva gore-booth, read: Sixteen dead Men, by wb yeats read: Imperial measure, by vona Groarke irish Independent. The rise Of Prussia essay, research Paper. Rise and growth of national states formation and growth of prussia early history of prussia.
Yet, as its style and language suggest, this is a nostalgic work - here, a timeless ideal is a greater source of imaginative power than the immediacy of lived experience. The 'green' and 'quiet' hill evokes perfect peace, but also reveals the passage of time through seasonal patterns of planting and harvesting. The biblical resonance of the scene is reinforced by the image of the gates of heaven, which open the poem to a space of redemption often invoked by the poets of 1916. This poem's air of melancholy does not derive directly from political events, however, but from the life that is slipping from the speaker's grasp. Written shortly before pearse's execution, it shows the poet seeking estate to come to terms with his impending death. Dr Lucy collins is a lecturer in English at University college dublin (UCD). She is the curator of 'reading 1916 a forthcoming exhibition at ucd special Collections.
50 Things you didn t know about 1916 - world Cultures
The wayfarer, the beauty of the world hath made me sad, This beauty that will pass; Sometimes my heart hath shaken with great joy. To see a remote leaping squirrel in a tree, or a red lady-bird upon a stalk, or little rabbits in a field at evening, lit by a slanting sun, Or some green hill where shadows drifted. Some quiet hill where mountainy man hath sown. And soon would reap; near to the gate of heaven; Or children with bare feet upon the sands. Of some ebbed sea, or playing on the streets. Of little towns in Connacht, Things young and happy. And then my heart hath told me: These will pass, will pass and change, will die and be no more, things bright and green, things young and happy; And I have gone upon my way. An Assessment of the wayfarer ' by Dr Lucy collins 'The wayfarer' reflects on the fleeting beauty of life's journey at a moment of decisive personal and political change. Alternating rhythms capture its shifting moods of sorrow and joy.